word-forming element meaning "drug, medicine," also "poison," from Latinized form of Greek pharmakon "drug, poison" (see pharmacy).
late 14c., farmacie, "a medicine that rids the body of an excess of humors (except blood);" also "treatment with medicine; theory of treatment with medicine," from Old French farmacie "a purgative" (13c.) and directly from Medieval Latin pharmacia, from Greek pharmakeia "a healing or harmful medicine, a healing or poisonous herb; a drug, poisonous potion; magic (potion), dye, raw material for physical or chemical processing."
This is from pharmakeus (fem. pharmakis) "a preparer of drugs, a poisoner, a sorcerer" from pharmakon "a drug, a poison, philter, charm, spell, enchantment." Beekes writes that the original meaning cannot be clearly established, and "The word is clearly Pre-Greek." The ph- was restored 16c. in French, 17c. in English (see ph).
Buck ["Selected Indo-European Synonyms"] notes that "Words for 'poison', apart from an inherited group, are in some cases the same as those for 'drug' ...." In addition to the Greek word he has Latin venenum "poison," earlier "drug, medical potion" (source of Spanish veneno, French venin, English venom), and Old English lybb.
Meaning "the use or administration of drugs" is from c. 1400; the sense of "art or practice of preparing, preserving, and compounding medicines and dispensing them according to prescriptions" is from 1650s; that of "place where drugs are prepared and dispensed" is recorded by 1833.
U.S. space agency, acronym of National Aeronautics and Space Administration, set up in 1958.
central nervous system stimulant, a proprietary name (Ciba Ltd., originally in Switzerland) for the drug methylphenidate hydrochloride. It was trademarked 1948, years before the drug itself was marketed.
"drug which induces hallucinations," 1954, from stem of hallucination + -gen.
"specialist in the administration of anesthetics," 1943, American English, from anesthesiology + -ist.
["way of management"], late 14c., policie, "study or practice of government; good government;" from Old French policie (14c.) "political organization, civil administration," from Late Latin politia "the state, civil administration," from Greek politeia "state, administration, government, citizenship," from politēs "citizen," from polis "city, state" (see polis).
From early 15c. as "an organized state, organized or established system of government or administration of a state," but this sense has gone with polity. Also from early 15c. as "object or course of conduct, or the principles to be observed in conduct," and thus "prudence or wisdom in action" generally, but especially "the system of measures or the line of conduct which a ruler, minister, government, or party adopts as best for the interests of the country in domestic or foreign affairs."
1936, initialism (acronym) from Works Progress Administration, U.S. agency established 1935.
"synthetic heart-stimulating drug," 1938, contracted from alphamethyl-phenethylamine.
"narcotics, opiates, etc.," 1883; see drug (n.).