c. 1400, consolidacioun, "act of making or process of becoming solid or firm," of wounds, broken bones, etc., from Late Latin consolidationem (nominative consolidatio), noun of action from past participle stem of consolidare "to make firm, consolidate," from assimilated form of com "with, together" (see con-) + solidare "to make solid," from solidus "firm, whole, undivided, entire," from suffixed form of PIE root *sol- "whole." Meaning "act of bringing together and uniting different parts into one body or whole" is from 1670s.
early 15c., "impervious to water," from Old French estanche "firm, watertight," fem. of estanc "tired, exhausted, wearied, vanquished; water-tight; withered, dried" (Modern French étanche), from Vulgar Latin *stanticare (source also of Spanish estanco "water-tight," Italian stanco "exhausted, weary"), probably from Latin stans (genitive stantis), present participle of stare "to stand," from PIE root *sta- "to stand, make or be firm." Sense of "strong, substantial" first recorded mid-15c.; of persons, "standing firm and true to one's principles" from 1620s.
"smart, trim," c. 1200, from Old Norse tryggr "firm, trusty, true," from Proto-Germanic *treuwaz "having or characterized by good faith," from PIE *drew-o-, a suffixed form of the root *deru- "be firm, solid, steadfast." A Scottish and northern word only until 19c. Related: Trigness.
late 14c., "steadfast, resolute; patient, unshakable; fixed or firm in mind," from Old French constant (14c.) or directly from Latin constantem (nominative constans) "standing firm, stable, steadfast, faithful," present participle of constare"to stand together," from assimilated form of com "with, together" (see con-) + stare "to stand," from PIE root *sta- "to stand, make or be firm."
Meaning "steadfast in attachment to a person or cause" is from early 15c. Of actions and conditions, "fixed, not varying" (1540s); "continual, enduring" (1650s). Meaning "regularly recurring" is from 1817. Related: Constantly.
of persons, "determined, resolute, firm," 1510s, past-participle adjective from resolve (v.). Related: Resolvedly.
1520s, from Latin subsistentem (nominative subsistens), present participle of subsistere "stand still or firm" (see subsistence).
in reference to spy-glasses or binoculars, 1905, from the firm founded by German optical instrument manufacturer Carl Zeiss (1816-1888).
hard animal fat, used to make soap, candles, etc., mid-14c., talwgh, from a source (perhaps an unrecorded Old English word) cognate with Middle Low German talg "tallow," Middle Dutch talch, from Proto-Germanic *talga-, meaning perhaps originally "firm, compact material" (compare Gothic tulgus "firm, solid"). OED says related Scandinavian words probably are from continental Germanic.
mid-13c., confirmyn, confermen "to ratify, sanction, make valid by a legal act," from Old French confermer (13c., Modern French confirmer) "strengthen, establish, consolidate; affirm by proof or evidence; anoint (a king)," from Latin confirmare "make firm, strengthen, establish," from assimilated form of com"together," but here perhaps an intensive prefix (see con-), + firmare "to strengthen," from firmus "strong, steadfast" (from suffixed form of PIE root *dher- "to hold firmly, support").
From mid-14c. as "make firm or more firm, add strength to;" late 14c. as "make certain or sure, give an assurance of truth, verify." Related: Confirmative; confirmatory.