Etymology
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festivity (n.)

"festive celebration, feast," late 14c., from Old French festiveté "celebration, festiveness, festival," from Latin festivitatem (nominative festivitas) "good fellowship, generosity," from festivus "festive," from festum "festival or holiday," neuter of festus "of a feast" (see feast (n.)). Related: Festivities.

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meanness (n.)

1550s, "weakness," from mean (adj.1) + -ness. Sense of "baseness, poverty, want of dignity or distinction" is from 1650s; that of "sordid illiberality, stinginess" from 1755. The Middle English senses were "fellowship; land held in common," from Old English gemænnes.

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coalition (n.)

1610s, "the growing together of parts," from French coalition (1540s), from Late Latin coalitus "fellowship," originally past participle of Latin coalescere "unite, grow together, become one in growth" (see coalesce). Political sense, "voluntary temporary union of persons, parties, nations, etc., for the attainment of a certain object" is attested by 1715.

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Hanse (n.)

also Hansa, medieval merchants' guild, late 12c. in Anglo-Latin, via Old French hanse and Medieval Latin hansa, both from Middle Low German hanse "fellowship, merchants' guild," from Old High German hansa "military troop, band, company." This is related to Gothic hansa "troop, company, multitude," Old English hos "attendants, retinue." A member was a Hansard. Compare Hanseatic.

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mithril (n.)

1954, an invented word by English author J.R.R. Tolkien in his Elvish language for a hard, light, precious silver metal. It first appears in "Fellowship of the Ring;" it was not in the original "The Hobbit" (1937), but was added in the revisions in the third edition (1966).

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Hanseatic (adj.)

1610s, from Hanseatic League, medieval confederation of North German towns for the protection of commerce, from Medieval Latin Hanseaticus, from Middle Low German hanse "fellowship, merchants' guild" (see Hanse). Its origin traditionally is dated from the compact between Hamburg and Lübeck in 1241; the assembly last met in 1669. Compare hanshus "guild hall" (12c.).

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common (n.)
Origin and meaning of common

c. 1300, "a fellowship or brotherhood; early 14c., "people of a community or town, freemen, citizenry;" late 15c., "land held in common," from Old French commune and Medieval Latin communia, and partly from common (adj.). Also compare commons. Latin communis "common, general" (adj.) also served as a noun meaning "common property; state, commonwealth."

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excommunicate (v.)

"to cut off by an ecclesiastical sentence either from the sacraments of the church or from all fellowship and intercourse with its members," early 15c., from Late Latin excommunicatus, past participle of excommunicare "put out of the community," in Church Latin "to expel from communion," from ex "out" (see ex-) + communicare "to share, communicate," related to communis "common" (see common (adj.)). Related: Excommunicated; excommunicating.

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community (n.)
Origin and meaning of community

late 14c., "a number of people associated together by the fact of residence in the same locality," also "the common people" (not the rulers or the clergy), from Old French comunité "community, commonness, everybody" (Modern French communauté), from Latin communitatem (nominative communitas) "community, society, fellowship, friendly intercourse; courtesy, condescension, affability," from communis "common, public, general, shared by all or many" (see common (adj.)).

Latin communitatem "was merely a noun of quality ... meaning 'fellowship, community of relations or feelings' " [OED], but in Medieval Latin it came to be used concretely to mean "a society, a division of people." In English, the meaning "common possession or enjoyment" is from c. 1400. Sense of "a society or association of persons having common interests or occupations" also is from c. 1400.

An Old English word for "community" was gemænscipe "community, fellowship, union, common ownership," from mæne "common, public, general," and thus probably composed from the same PIE roots as communis. Middle English also had commonty (late 14c.) "the common people; a community," also later meaning "land held in common" (c. 1600).

Community service as a criminal sentence is recorded from 1972, American English. Community college, one offering post-secondary instruction geared to local needs and interests, is recorded from 1947, American English. Community chest "fund made up of individual donations to meet the needs of charity and social welfare in a community" is from 1919, American English.

The Community Chest is a device to consolidate all these separate [charitable] appeals, and go before the people once a year with a budget which appropriates to each organization the amount which it needs to make up the difference between its income from other sources, and its necessary expenses. By this means not only are the charities relieved of financial worry and adequately supported, but the public is spared the irritation of constant solicitation, which is all the more unbusinesslike because it is decentralized and not subject to outside disinterested scrutiny. ["New Jersey Municipalities," December 1919]
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gather (v.)

Old English gadrian, gædrian "unite, agree, assemble; gather, collect, store up" (transitive and intransitive), used of flowers, thoughts, persons; from Proto-Germanic *gaduron "come or bring together, unite" (source also of Old English gæd "fellowship, companionship," gædeling "companion;" Middle Low German gadderen; Old Frisian gaderia; Dutch gaderen "to gather," gade "spouse;" German Gatte "husband;" Gothic gadiliggs), perhaps from PIE *ghedh- "to unite, join" (see good (adj.)). Change of spelling from -d- to -th- is 1500s, reflecting earlier change in pronunciation (as in  father). Related: Gathered; gathering.

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