Etymology
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fallback 
also fall-back, as a noun, "a reserve," 1851, from verbal phrase, from fall (v.) + back (adv.), which is attested in the sense of "retreat" from c. 1600. As an adjective, from 1767 as a type of chair; 1930 as "that may be used in an emergency."
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pitfall (n.)

mid-14c., "concealed hole into which a person or animal may fall unawares," from pit (n.1) + fall (n.). Figurative sense of "any hidden danger or concealed source of disaster" is recorded from early 15c.

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rainfall (n.)

also rain-fall, by 1850 as "amount of precipitation that falls as rain, from rain (n.) + fall (n.). By 1858 as "a falling of rain."

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pratfall (n.)

"a comedy fall," by 1930, said to be a word from burlesque or vaudeville theater, from prat "buttock" + fall (n.). "Chiefly N. Amer. slang" [OED]. As a verb from 1940.

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windfall (n.)
mid-15c., from wind (n.1) + fall (n.1). Originally literal, in reference to wood or fruit blown down by the wind, and thus free to all. Figurative sense of "unexpected acquisition" is recorded from 1540s.
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downfall (n.)

early 14c., "ruin, fall from high condition, complete overthrow," from down (adv.) + fall (v.). From c. 1500 as "a falling downward." Verbal phrase fall down in the sense of "go to ruin" is attested from late 12c.

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waterfall (n.)
Old English wætergefeall; see water (n.1) + fall (n.). The modern English word is perhaps a re-formation from c. 1500. Similar formation in German wasserfall, Old Norse vatnfall.
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fallen (adj.)
c. 1400, past-participle adjective from fall (v.). Used figuratively for "morally ruined" by 1620s, from the verb in the sense "yield to temptation" (especially in reference to women and chastity), attested from c. 1200. Meaning "those who have died" attested by 1765. Fallen angel is from 1680s; fallen woman by 1748.
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befall (v.)
Old English befeallan "to deprive of; fall to, occur to, be assigned to," from be- "by, about" + feallan (see fall). Compare Old Frisian bifalla, Old Saxon, Old High German bifallan, German befallen. Intransitive sense of "to happen, come to pass" is from c. 1300. Related: Befell; befalling.
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landfall (n.)

"sighting of land," 1620s, also "the first land 'made' on a sea voyage" (1883); from land (n.) + fall (v.) in the sense of "happen." A word from the days of imprecise nautical navigation.

Land-fall. The first land discovered after a sea voyage. Thus a good land fall implies the land expected or desired; a bad landfall the reverse. [John Hamilton Moore, "The New Practical Navigator," London, 1814]

Of hurricanes, by 1932.

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