late 15c., "well-mannered, courteous, having manners befitting a court," from court (n.) + -ly (1). Compare courteous. Meaning "pertaining to the court" is from late 15c. The elegant, polite, refined courtly love "highly conventionalized medieval chivalric love" (amour courtois) is attested from 1821. Related: Courtliness.
c. 1300, "vegetable garden," from Anglo-French curtilage, Old French courtillage, from Old French cortil "little court, walled garden, yard," from Medieval Latin cortile "court, yard," from Latin cortis (see court (n.)). In later use principally a legal word for "the enclosed land occupied by the dwelling and its yard and out-buildings."
"medieval martial arts contest," c. 1200 (figurative), c. 1300 (literal), from Old French tornement "contest between groups of knights on horseback" (12c.), from tornoier "to joust, tilt, take part in tournaments" (see tourney). Modern use, in reference to games of skill, is recorded from 1761.
late 14c., "of or pertaining to a judge; pertaining to the administration of justice," from Latin iudicialis "of or belonging to a court of justice," from iudicium "judgment, decision of a court of justice," also the court itself, from iudex "a judge," a compound of ius "right, law" (see just (adj.)) + root of dicere "to say" (from PIE root *deik- "to show," also "pronounce solemnly"). Related: Judicially.
also courtezan, "a prostitute," 1540s, from French courtisane, from Italian cortigiana "prostitute," literally "woman of the court" (a mock-use or euphemism), fem. of cortigiano "one attached to a court," from corte "court," from Latin cortem (see court (n.)).
An earlier identical word in English meant "a courtier, a member of the papal curia" (early 15c.), from Old French courtisan, the masc. form, from Italian cortigiano.
"relating to courts," early 15c., from Latin iudiciarius "of or belonging to a court of justice," from iudicium "judgment, court of justice," from iudicem "a judge" (see judge (n.)). The noun meaning "a body of judges, judges collectively" is from 1788 (judicature was used in this sense from 1590s).
early 14c., "one who holds an official post, one entrusted with a responsibility or share of the management of some undertaking" (originally a high office), from Old French oficier "officer, official" (early 14c., Modern French officier), from Medieval Latin officiarius "an officer," from Latin officium "a service, a duty" (see office).
In Middle English also "a servant, a retainer of a great household; an official at court" (late 14c.). From late 14c. as "a military retainer," but the modern military sense of "one who holds a commission in the army or navy" is from 1560s. Applied to petty officials of justice from 16c.; U.S. use in reference to policemen is from 1880s.
The phrase officer and a gentleman in reference to one having the qualities of both is by 1762 and was standard language in British court-martial indictments ("behaviour infamous and scandalous such as is unbecoming the character of an officer and a gentleman").
The words 'officer and gentleman,' though in general to be understood as one single and indivisible term, appear not to be so used here. The misbehaviour, entailing on it the penalty declared by this article, must be such, as I understand it, as to implicate, in the first place, the officer; that is, it must arise in some sort out of his office; and affect incidentally only, the character of the gentleman. It must be such a misconduct, as must necessarily dissever what should ever be indivisible, the consideration of the officer from the gentleman. It must be of that decisively low, humiliating, and debasing kind, as to lay prostrate the honour of the gentleman, in the degradation of the officer. [Capt. Hough and George Long, "The Practice of Courts-Martial," London, 1825]
1736, the "supreme ultimate" in Taoism and Neo-Confucianism, from Chinese tai "extreme" + ji "limit." As the name of a form of martial arts training (said to have been developed by a priest in the Sung dynasty, 960-1279) it is first attested 1962, in full, tai chi ch'uan, with Chinese quan "fist."
"of or pertaining to pleas or pleading in a court of law," 1640s, from Medieval Latin placitum.