"act of conniving, an overlooking of a disreputable or illegal action, often implying private approval," especially, in divorce law, "corrupt consent of a married person to that conduct of the spouse of which complaint is later made," 1590s, from French connivence or directly from Latin conniventia, from conniventem (nominative connivens), present participle of connivere "to wink," hence, "to wink at (a crime), be secretly privy" (see connive). According to OED, the spelling with -a- prevailed after early 18c. but is unetymological.
"act of throwing off or away; refusal to accept or grant," 1550s, from French réjection (16c.) or directly from Latin reiectionem (nominative reiectio) "act of throwing back," noun of action from past-participle stem of reicere (see reject (v.)).
In 19c., it also could mean "excrement." An earlier use was "setting aside of a wife, divorce" (mid-15c.). Medical transplant sense is from 1954. In the psychological sense, relating to parenting, from 1931.
1857, "to forgive or pardon" (something wrong), especially by implication, from Latin condonare "to give up, remit, permit," from assimilated form of com-, here perhaps an intensive prefix (see con-), + donare "give as a gift," from donum "gift" (from PIE root *do- "to give").
It is attested from 1620s, but only as a dictionary word. In real-world use originally a legal term in the Matrimonial Causes Act, which made divorce a civil matter in Britain (see condonation). General sense of "tolerate, sanction" is by 1962. Related: Condoned; condoning.
"act of pardoning a wrong act," 1620s, from Latin condonationem (nominative condonatio) "a giving away," noun of action from past-participle stem of condonare "to give up, remit, permit," from assimilated form of com-, here perhaps an intensive prefix (see con-), + donare "give as a gift" (from donum "gift," from PIE root *do- "to give").
Condonation is the remission of a matrimonial offence known to the remitting party to have been committed by the other; on the condition subsequent that ever afterward the party remitting shall be treated by the other with conjugal kindness. [Joel Prentiss Bishop, "Commentaries on the Law of Marriage and Divorce," 1864]
1580s (transitive and intransitive), not found in Middle English, probably from a Low German source such as Middle Dutch splitten, from Proto-Germanic *spleitanan (source also of Danish and Frisian splitte, Old Frisian splita, German spleißen "to split"), from PIE *(s)plei- "to split, splice" (see flint).
U.S. slang meaning "leave, depart" first recorded 1954. Of couples, "to separate, to divorce" from 1942. To split the difference is suggested from 1715; to split (one's) ticket in the U.S. political sense is attested from 1842. To split hairs "make too-nice distinctions" is from 1670s (split a hair). Splitting image "exact likeness" is from 1880. To split the atom is from 1909.
1580s, in logic and grammar, in the latter "division of one syllable into two," from Latin, from Greek dialysis "dissolution, separation" (used of the disbanding of troops, a divorce, etc.), from dialyein "dissolve, separate," from dia "apart" + lyein "loosen" (from PIE root *leu- "to loosen, divide, cut apart").
Chemistry sense of "process by which particles are selectively removed from a liquid by consequence of their differing capacity to pass through a membrane into another liquid" is from 1861; the specific sense in medicine, "process of blood purification by allowing it to pass through a membrane" is by 1914. Related: Dialytic. The verb dialyze was formed from the noun on the model of analyze, etc.
late 14c., alienacioun, "action of estranging, disownment;" early 15c., "transfer of one's title to property or rights," from Old French alienacion and directly from Latin alienationem (nominative alienatio) "a transfer, surrender, separation," noun of action from past-participle stem of alienare "to make another's, part with; estrange, set at variance." This is from alienus "of or belonging to another person or place," from alius "another, other, different" (from PIE root *al- (1) "beyond").
Middle English alienation also meant "deprivation of mental faculties, insanity" (early 15c.), from Latin alienare in a secondary sense "deprive of reason, drive mad;" hence alienist. Phrase alienation of affection as a U.S. legal term in divorce cases for "falling in love with someone else" dates to 1861.
c. 1500, "a ceasing, an ending; a going away, act of leaving" (obsolete in this sense), from Old French departement "division, sharing out; divorce, parting" (12c.), from Late Latin departire "to divide" (transitive), from de- "from" (see de-) + partire "to part, divide," from pars (genitive partis) "a part, piece, a share, a division" (from PIE root *pere- (2) "to grant, allot").
French department came also to mean "group of people" (as well as "departure"), and from this by 1735 English had borrowed the sense of "separate division of a complex whole, separate business assigned to someone in a larger organization, distinct branch or group of activities" (science, business, manufacture, the military). The specific meaning "separate division of a government" is from 1769. As an administrative district in France, from 1792.
Department store "store that sells a variety of items, organized by department" is from 1878.
The "Department Store" is the outgrowth of the cheap counter business originated by Butler Brothers in Boston about ten years ago. The little "Five Cent Counter" then became a cornerstone from which the largest of all the world's branches of merchandising was to be reared. It was the "Cheap Counter" which proved to the progressive merchant his ability to sell all lines of wares under one roof. It was the Five Cent Counter "epidemic" of '77 and '78 which rushed like a mighty whirlwind from the Atlantic to the Pacific and all along its path transformed old time one line storekeepers into the wide-awake merchant princes of the present day. It was this same epidemic which made possible the world famed Department Stores of Houghton, of Boston; Macy, of New York; Wanamaker, of Philadelphia; and Lehman, of Chicago. [American Storekeeper, 1885]
Old English læfan "to allow to remain in the same state or condition; to let remain, allow to survive; to have left (of a deceased person, in reference to heirs, etc.); to bequeath (a heritage)," from Proto-Germanic *laibjanan (source also of Old Frisian leva "to leave," Old Saxon farlebid "left over"), causative of *liban "remain" (source of Old English belifan, German bleiben, Gothic bileiban "to remain"), from PIE root *leip- "to stick, adhere."
The Germanic root seems to have had only the sense "remain, continue" (which was in Old English as well but has since become obsolete), which also is in Greek lipares "persevering, importunate." But this usually is regarded as a development from the primary PIE sense of "adhere, be sticky" (compare Lithuanian lipti, Old Church Slavonic lipet "to adhere," Greek lipos "grease," Sanskrit rip-/lip- "to smear, adhere to."
Originally a strong verb (past participle lifen), it early switched to a weak form. Meaning "go away, take one's departure, depart from; leave behind" (c. 1200) comes from notion of "leave behind" (as in to leave the earth "to die;" to leave the field "retreat"). From c. 1200 as "to stop, cease; give up, relinquish, abstain from having to do with; discontinue, come to an end;" also "to omit, neglect; to abandon, forsake, desert; divorce;" also "allow (someone) to go."
Colloquial use for "let, allow" is by 1840, said by OED to be chiefly American English. Not related to leave (n.). To leave out "omit" is from late 15c. To leave (something) alone is from c. 1400; to leave (something) be is from 1825. To leave (something/nothing) to be desired is from 1780. To leave it at that is from 1902. Leave off is from c. 1400 as "cease, desist" (transitive); early 15c. as "stop, make an end" (intransitive).