Old English scamu, sceomu "painful feeling of guilt or disgrace; confusion caused by shame; state of being in disgrace; dishonor, insult, loss of esteem or reputation; shameful circumstance, what brings disgrace; modesty," from Proto-Germanic *skamo (source also of Old Saxon skama, Old Norse skömm, Swedish skam, Old Frisian scome, Dutch schaamte, Old High German scama, German Scham), which is of unknown etymology. The best guess is that this is from PIE *skem-, from *kem- "to cover" (covering oneself being a common expression of shame).
It is attested by c. 1300 as "modesty, shyness, regard for propriety or decency;" by 1580s as "thing or person to be ashamed of." To put (someone or something) to shame "inflict disgrace or dishonor upon" is mid-13c. Shame culture attested by 1947. The interjection for shame! "you should be ashamed" is by c. 1300.
Also in Middle English "nakedness, private parts, the genitals," as in the Wycliffite Bible's shameful thingis for Latin verecundiora. and shamfast membris for the male genitalia.
Until modern times English had a productive duplicate form in shand. An Old Norse word for it was kinnroði, literally "cheek-redness," hence, "blush of shame." Greek distinguished shame in the bad sense of "disgrace, dishonor" (aiskhynē) from shame in the good sense of "modesty, bashfulness" (aidos).
"act of leading or carrying over," 1650s, from Latin transductionem/traducionem (nominative transductio) "a removal, transfer," noun of action from past-participle stem of transducere/traducere "change over, convert," also "lead in parade, make a show of, dishonor, disgrace," originally "lead along or across, bring through, transfer" (see traduce).
c. 1400, from Old French violacion and directly from Latin violationem (nominative violatio) "an injury, irreverence, profanation," from past participle stem of violare "to treat with violence, outrage, dishonor," perhaps an irregular derivative of vis "strength, force, power, energy," from PIE root *weie- "to go after, pursue with vigor or desire" (see gain (v.)).
1580s, "state of being out of favor of one in a powerful or exalted position;" also "cause of shame or reproach;" 1590s, "state of ignominy, dishonor, or shame," from French disgrace (16c.), from Italian disgrazia, from dis- (see dis-) + grazia, from Latin gratia "favor, esteem, regard; pleasing quality, good will, gratitude" (see grace (n.)).
late 14c., "disgrace, shame, want of honor," from Old French deshonesté (13c., Modern French deshonnéteté) "dishonor, impropriety," from des- (see dis-) + Latin honestatem (nominative honestas) "honorableness," from honestus "honorable; deserving honor, respectable," from honos "honor, dignity, office, reputation," which is of unknown origin. Meaning "want of honesty, lack of integrity," the main modern sense, is recorded from 1590s.
late 15c., smorchen, "to discolor, to make dirty" (also compare bismorched, mid-15c.), a word of uncertain origin, perhaps (OED) from Old French esmorcher "to torture," which is perhaps also "befoul, stain," from es- "out" (see ex-) + morcher "to bite," from Latin morsus, past participle of mordēre "to bite" (see mordant). The sense perhaps was influenced by smear. The figurative meaning "dishonor, disgrace, discredit" is attested from 1820.
c. 1300, defamacioun, "disgrace, dishonor, ill repute" (senses now obsolete), from Old French diffamacion and directly from Medieval Latin deffamation, from Latin diffamationem (nominative diffamatio), noun of action from past-participle stem of diffamare "to spread abroad by ill report, make a scandal of," from dis-, here probably suggestive of ruination, + fama "a report, rumor" (from PIE root *bha- (2) "to speak, tell, say").
From late 14c. as "the wrong of injuring another's reputation without justification." From early 15c. as "calumny, slander, an instance of defaming."
also sneap, "to be hard upon, rebuke, revile, snub," early 14c., snaipen, from Old Norse sneypa "to outrage, dishonor, disgrace," which is probably related to similar-sounding words meaning "cut" (compare snip (v.)).
The verb meaning "bevel the end (of a timber) to fit an inclined surface" is of uncertain origin or connection. Snaiping (n.) "rebuking, reproaching, reviling" is attested from early 14c. Shakespeare has sneaped birds, annoyed by a late frost ("Rape of Lucrere").
mid-14c., "to disparage, dishonor, impair morally;" late 14c., "to damage or spoil, disfigure," from Old French blemiss- "to turn pale," extended stem of blemir, blesmir "to make pale; stain, discolor," also "to injure" (13c., Modern French blêmir), probably from Frankish *blesmjan "to cause to turn pale," or some other Germanic source, from Proto-Germanic *blas "shining, white," from PIE root *bhel- (1) "to shine, flash, burn," also "shining white."
From mid-15c. as "mar the beauty or soundness of." Usually in reference to something that is well-formed or otherwise excellent. Related: Blemished; blemishing.
1530s, "alter, change over, transport," from Latin traducere "change over, convert," also "lead in parade, make a show of, dishonor, disgrace," originally "lead along or across, bring through, transfer" (source also of French traduire, Spanish traducir, Italian tradurre), from trans "across, beyond" (see trans-) + ducere "to lead" (from PIE root *deuk- "to lead"). Sense of "defame, slander" in English is from 1580s, from Latin traducere in the sense of "scorn or disgrace," a figurative use from the notion of "to lead along as a spectacle." Related: Traduced; traducing.