Etymology
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precentor (n.)

"a leader or director of a church choir or congregation in singing," 1610s, from Late Latin praecentor "a leader in singing," from Latin praecantare "to sing before," from prae "before" (see pre-) + canere "to sing" (from PIE root *kan- "to sing"). For change of vowel, see biennial.

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sexist (adj.)

1965, from sex (n.) on model of racist, coined by Pauline M. Leet, director of special programs at Franklin & Marshall College, Lancaster, Pennsylvania, U.S., in a speech which circulated in mimeograph among feminists. It was popularized by use in print in Caroline Bird's introduction to "Born Female" (1968), which also introduced sexism.

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architect (n.)
Origin and meaning of architect

"person skilled in the art of building, one who plans and designs buildings and supervises their construction," 1560s, from French architecte, from Latin architectus, from Greek arkhitekton "master builder, director of works," from arkhi- "chief" (see archon) + tekton "builder, carpenter," from PIE root *teks- "to weave," also "to fabricate."

Old English used heahcræftiga "high-crafter" as a loan-translation of Latin architectus. Middle English had architectour "superintendent." Extended sense of "one who plans or contrives" anything is from 1580s.

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modulator (n.)

c. 1500, "one who or that which modulates," from Latin modulator "one who measures by rule, a regulator" in various senses (such as "musical director"), agent noun from past participle stem of modulari "regulate, measure off properly" (see modulate). Meaning "device that produces modulation of a wave" is from 1919.

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magistrate (n.)
Origin and meaning of magistrate

late 14c., "a civil officer in charge of administering laws," also "office or function of a magistrate," from Old French magistrat, from Latin magistratus "a magistrate, public functionary," originally "magisterial rank or office," from magistrare "serve as a magistrate," from magister "chief, director" (see master (n.)). From late 17c. often meaning "justice of the peace" or other minor officials having criminal jurisdiction.

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moderator (n.)

late 14c., moderatour, "that which regulates the movement of the celestial spheres," from Latin moderator "manager, ruler, director," literally "he who moderates," from moderatus "within bounds, observing moderation;" figuratively "modest, restrained," past participle of moderari "to regulate, mitigate, restrain, temper, set a measure, keep (something) within measure," from PIE root *med- "take appropriate measures."

Meaning "one who acts as an arbitrator, person who presides at a meeting or disputation" is from 1560s. Fem. form moderatrix attested from 1530s.

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mistress (n.)

c. 1300, "female teacher, governess; supervisor of novices in a convent," from Old French maistresse "mistress (lover); housekeeper; governess, female teacher" (Modern French maîtresse), fem. of maistre "master," from Latin magister "chief, head, director, teacher" (see master (n.)).

Sense of "a woman who employs others or has authority over a household and servants" is from early 15c. Meaning "woman who has mastered an art or branch of study" is from mid-15c. Sense of "kept woman of a married man" is from early 15c. As a polite form of address to a woman, mid-15c. Meaning "woman who is beloved and courted, one who has command over a lover's heart" is from c. 1500.

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governor (n.)
c. 1300, gouernour, "personal keeper, protector, guide;" late 14c., "one who governs, a ruler," from Old French governeor "prince, ruler, administrator; helmsman" (11c., Modern French gouverneur) and directly from Latin gubernatorem (nominative gubernator) "director, ruler, governor," originally "steersman, pilot" (see govern). Meaning "subordinate ruler; head of a province, etc." is from late 14c. Meaning "one charged with direction or control of an institution, etc." is from late 14c. Mechanical sense of "self-acting regulator" is from 1819. The adjective gubernatorial remembers the Latin form. There is a record of English governator from 1520s.
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victory (n.)

c. 1300, "military supremacy, victory in battle or a physical contest," from Anglo-French and Old French victorie (12c.) and directly from Latin victoria "victory," from past participle stem of vincere "to overcome, conquer" (from nasalized form of PIE root *weik- (3) "to fight, conquer"). V.E. ("victory in Europe") and V.J. ("victory in Japan") days in World War II were first used Sept. 2, 1944, by James F. Byrne, then U.S. director of War Mobilization [Washington Post, Sept. 10, 1944].

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intramercurial (adj.)
"being within the orbit of the planet Mercury," 1859, especially in reference to a supposed planet orbiting there (sought in vain in the eclipse of 1860), from intra- "within, inside" + Mercury (Latin Mercurius) + -al (1). The idea originated in France in the 1840s with Urbain Le Verrier, who later became director of the Paris Observatory. There was some excitement about it in 1859 when a French doctor named Lescarbault claimed to have tracked it crossing the Sun's disk and convinced Le Verrier. It was sought in vain in the solar eclipses of 1860, '68, and '69. See Vulcan.
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