Etymology
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Muppet (n.)

type of glove-and-rod puppet, trademark (U.S.) Sept. 26, 1972, claiming use from 1971, but in print from Sept. 1970. Coined by creator Jim Henson (1936-1990), who said, despite the resemblance to marionette and puppet (they have qualities of both), it has no etymology; he just liked the sound.

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nausea (n.)

early 15c., "vomiting," from Latin nausea "seasickness," from Ionic Greek nausia (Attic nautia) "seasickness, nausea, disgust," literally "ship-sickness," from naus "ship" (from PIE root *nau- "boat"). Despite its etymology, the word in English seems never to have been restricted to seasickness. The 16c. canting slang had nase, or nasy "hopelessly drunk."

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selenium (n.)

element name, Modern Latin, from Greek selēnē "moon" (see Selene). Named by Berzelius (1818), on analogy of tellurium, with which it had been at first confused, and which was named for the earth. Despite the -ium ending it is not a metal and a more appropriate name selenion has been proposed. Related: Selenic; selenide; selenious.

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isotope (n.)
1913, literally "having the same place," from Greek isos "equal" (see iso-) + topos "place" (see topos); so called because, despite having different atomic weights, the various forms of an element occupy the same place on the periodic table. Introduced by British chemist Frederick Soddy (1877-1956) on suggestion of his friend, the Scottish writer and doctor Margaret Todd (c. 1859-1918). Related: Isotopic.
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hawk (v.1)
"to sell in the open, peddle," late 15c., back-formation from hawker "itinerant vendor" (c. 1400), agent noun from Middle Low German höken "to peddle, carry on the back, squat," from Proto-Germanic *huk-. Related: Hawked; hawking. Despite the etymological connection with stooping under a burden on one's back, a hawker is technically distinguished from a peddler by use of a horse and cart or a van.
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bitch (v.)
"to complain," attested from at least 1930, perhaps from the sense in bitchy, perhaps influenced by the verb meaning "to bungle, spoil," which is recorded from 1823. But bitched in this sense seems to echo Middle English bicched "cursed, bad," a general term of opprobrium (as in Chaucer's bicched bones "unlucky dice"), which despite the hesitation of OED, seems to be a derivative of bitch (n.).
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biceps 
1630s (adj.) "two-headed," specifically in anatomy, "having two distinct origins," from Latin biceps "having two parts," literally "two-headed," from bis "double" (see bis-) + -ceps, combining form of caput "head" (from PIE root *kaput- "head"). As a noun meaning "biceps muscle of the arm," from 1640s, so called for its structure. Despite the -s, it is singular, and classicists insist there is no such word as bicep.
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balderdash (n.)
1590s, of obscure origin despite much 19c. conjecture; in early use "a jumbled mix of liquors" (milk and beer, beer and wine, etc.); by 1670s as "senseless jumble of words." Perhaps from dash and the first element perhaps cognate with Danish balder "noise, clatter" (see boulder). "But the word may be merely one of the numerous popular formations of no definite elements, so freely made in the Elizabethan period" [Century Dictionary].
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holystone (n.)

soft sandstone used to scrub decks of sailing ships, 1777, despite the spelling, probably so called perhaps because it is full of holes, and thus from hole (n.). The other theory is that it was used for cleaning decks on Sundays. As a verb, by 1828.

Six days shalt thou labor as hard as thou art able
And on the seventh holystone the decks and scrape the cable
["The Philadelphia Catechism," Dana, c. 1830]
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cod (n.)

large sea fish, edible and widely distributed in colder seas, mid-14c. (late 13c. in a surname, Thomas cotfich), of unknown origin; despite similarity of form it has no conclusive connection to the widespread Germanic word for "bag" (represented by Old English codd, preserved in cod-piece). Codfish is from 1560s. Cod-liver oil, known at least since 1610s, was recommended medicinally from 1783 but did not become popular as a remedy until after 1825.

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