Etymology
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bombazine (n.)
(also bombasine, bambazine), 1550s, "raw cotton;" 1570s, "twilled or corded dress material woven of silk and wool, always inexpensive and of the same color," from French bombasin (14c.) "cotton cloth," from Medieval Latin bombacinium "silk texture," from Late Latin bombycinium, neuter of bombycinius "silken," from bombyx "silk, silkworm," from Greek bombyx (see bombast). The post-classical transfer of the word from "silk" to "cotton" may reflect the perceived "silk-like" nature of the fabric, or a waning of familiarity with genuine silk in the European Dark Ages, but compare bombast.
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dimity (n.)

"stout cotton fabric ornamented in the loom with raised stripes or fancy figures," mid-15c., dimesey, from Italian dimiti, plural of dimito, a name for a kind of strong cotton cloth, from Medieval Latin dimitum, from Greek dimitos "of double thread," from di- (from PIE root *dwo- "two") + mitos "warp thread, thread," a word of uncertain etymology.

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velveteen (n.)
imitation velvet (made with cotton in place of silk), 1776, from velvet + commercial suffix -een (variant of -ine).
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gingham (n.)
cotton fabric woven of plain dyed yarns, 1610s, from Dutch gingang, a traders' rendering of a Malay (Austronesian) word said to be ginggang, meaning "striped" [OED], or else "perishable, fading" [Century Dictionary], used as a noun with the sense of "striped cotton." Also from the same source are French guingan (18c.), Spanish guinga, Italian gingano, German gingang.
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oil-skin (n.)

also oilskin, "cloth of cotton, linen, etc., prepared with oil to make it water-proof," 1816, from oil (n.) + skin (n.).

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batting (n.1)
"sheets of cotton fiber," 1875, variant of obsolete bat "felted mass of fur, wool, etc." (see bat (n.1)), on notion of "beaten" fabric.
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calico (n.)
1530s, kalyko cloth, "white cotton cloth," from an alternative form of Calicut (modern Kozhikode), name of the seaport on the Malabar coast of India where Europeans first obtained it. In U.S. use from c. 1800, "printed cotton cloth coarser than muslin;" extended to animal colorings suggestive of printed calicos in 1807, originally of horses, of cats from 1882. The place-name (mentioned by Ptolemy as kalaikaris) is Tamil, said to mean "fort of Kalliai."
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nankeen (n.)

kind of cotton cloth, originally usually yellow, 1755, from Nanking, China, where it originally was made. Also "trousers or breeches made of nankeen" (1806).

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sari (n.)

also saree, the long, wrapping garment of silk or cotton worn by Hindu women, 1785, from Hindi sari, from Prakrit sadi, from Sanskrit sati "garment, petticoat."

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muslin (n.)
c. 1600, "delicately woven cotton fabric," from French mousseline (17c.), from Italian mussolina, from Mussolo, Italian name of Mosul, city in northern Mesopotamia (modern Iraq) where muslin was made. Like many fabric names, it has changed meaning over the years, in this case from luxurious to commonplace. In 13c. French, mosulin meant "cloth of silk and gold." The meaning "everyday cotton fabric for shirts, bedding, etc." is first attested 1872 in American English.
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