1841, "a young cod, split and fried or boiled," a New England word of uncertain origin, possibly from Dutch schrood "piece cut off," from Middle Dutch scrode "shred" (cognate with Old English screade "piece cut off;" see shred (n.)). If this is the origin, the notion is probably of fish cut into pieces for drying or cooking.
A Boston brahmin is on a business trip to Philadelphia. In search of dinner, and hungry for that Boston favorite, broiled scrod, he hops into a cab and asks the driver, "My good man, take me someplace where I can get scrod." The cabbie replies, "Pal, that's the first time I've ever been asked that in the passive pluperfect subjunctive." [an old joke in Philadelphia, this version of it from "Vex, Hex, Smash, Smooch," Constance Hale, 2012]
c. 1300, "systematic compilation of laws," from Old French code "system of laws, law-book" (13c.), from Latin codex"systematic classification of statutory law," earlier caudex "book," literally "tree trunk," hence, book made up of wooden tablets covered with wax for writing. De Vaan traces this through Proto-Italic *kaud-ek- to PIE *kehu-d- "cleaved, separate," which he also sees as the root of cauda "tail" (see coda).
Meaning "cipher, system of signals and the rules which govern their use" (the sense in secret code) is from 1808. Code-name is from 1879 (in telegraphy). Meaning "system of expressing information and instructions in a form usable by a computer" is from 1946.
"white crystalline alkaloid present in opium," 1838, codeina, from French codéine, coined, with chemical suffix -ine (2), from Greek kodeia "poppy head," related to koos "prison," literally "hollow place;" kodon "bell, mouth of a trumpet;" koilos "hollow, hollowed out, spacious, deep," all from PIE root *keue- "to swell," also "vault, hole." Modern form is from 1881.
"a writing added to a will to explain, alter, add to, or revoke original terms," early 15c., from Latin codicillus "a short writing, a small writing tablet," diminutive of codex (genitive codicis) "book" (see code (n.)). Related: Codicillary.
"manuscript volume (especially an ancient one)," 1845, from Latin codex "book" (see code (n.)). Related: Codical.
character encoding system originally invented for use with the telegraph, by 1860, earlier Morse key (1858), so called in honor of Samuel F.B. Morse (1791-1872), U.S. inventor who produced a system of telegraphic communication in 1836. He invented both the recording telegraph and the alphabet of dots and dashes.
"passage added to a musical composition for the purpose of bringing it to a conclusion," 1753, from Latin cauda "tail of an animal," which is of uncertain origin. De Vaan traces it to Proto-Italic *kaud-a- "part; tail," from PIE *kehu-d- "cleaved, separate," from root *khu-. He writes: "Since words for 'piece, part' are often derived from 'to cut, cleave', the tail may have been referred to as the loose 'part' of the animal."