1540s, "one who shuts" (see shut (v.)); the meaning "movable wooden or iron frame or screen used as a cover for a window" is from 1720s (probably short for window-shutters, attested from 1680s). The photographic sense of "device for opening and closing the aperture of a lens" is from 1862.
"morbid fear of being shut up in a confined space," coined 1879 (in article by Italian-born, French-naturalized Swiss-English physician Dr. Benjamin Ball), with -phobia "fear" + Latin claustrum "a bolt, a means of closing; a place shut in, confined place, frontier fortress" (in Medieval Latin "cloister"), from past participle of claudere "to close" (see close (v.)).
1871, the French word for "closure, the action of closing," applied to debates in the French Assembly ("action of closing (debate) by will of a majority"), then to the House of Commons and U.S. Congress, from French clôture, from Old French closture (see closure). It was especially used in English by those opposed to the tactic.
In foreign countries the Clôture has been used notoriously to barricade up a majority against the "pestilent" criticism of a minority, and in this country every "whip" and force is employed by the majority to re-assert its continued supremacy and to keep its ranks intact whenever attacked. How this one-sided struggle to maintain solidarity can be construed into "good for all" is inexplicable in the sense uttered. ["The clôture and the Recent Debate, a Letter to Sir J. Lubbock," London, 1882]
"island consisting of a strip or ring of coral around a central lagoon," 1620s, atollon, from Malayalam (Dravidian) atolu "reef," which is said to be from adal "closing, uniting." Watkins writes, "Perhaps ultimately from Sanskrit antara-, interior" (from PIE root *en "in"). The original use was in reference to the Maldives. The word was popularized in its present form by Darwin's writings.
late 14c., "deduction or inference reached by reasoning, result of a discussion or examination," from Old French conclusion "conclusion, result, outcome," from Latin conclusionem (nominative conclusio), noun of action from past-participle stem of concludere "to shut up, enclose" (see conclude).
Also, from late 14c. "the end, termination, final part; closing passages of a speech or writing; final result, outcome." For foregone conclusion, see forego.
"short-sightedness," 1727, medical Latin, from Late Greek myōpia "near-sightedness," from myōps "near-sighted," literally "closing the eyes, blinking," on the notion of "squinting, contracting the eyes" (as near-sighted people do), from myein "to shut" (see mute (adj.)) + ōps (genitive ōpos) "eye" (from PIE root *okw- "to see"). By coincidence the name describes the problem: the parallel rays of light are brought to a focus before they reach the retina.
"a severe blow," 1670s, probably from a Scandinavian source (compare Norwegian slamre, Swedish slemma "to slam, bang") of imitative origin. The meaning "a violent closing of a door" is from 1817. The meaning "an insult, put-down" is from 1884.
Slam-bang (adv.) "suddenly, violently, noisily" is by 1806 (earlier slap-bang, 1785). Slam-dunk in basketball is from 1976 (see dunk (v.)); early use often in reference to Julius "Dr. J" Erving. Slam-dance (v.) is attested by 1987 (slam by itself in this sense is recorded from 1983).
"to drink freely and revel noisily," 1550s, from French carousser "drink, quaff, swill," from German gar aus "quite out," from gar austrinken; trink garaus "to drink up entirely." Kluge says it was originally the German exclamation accompanying closing time (Polizeistunde). From this it was generalized to "the end," especially in the phrase Den Garaus machen. The first element is from Old High German garo "ready, prepared, complete" (see gear (n.)); for the second element, see out (adv.). Frequently also as an adverb in early English usage (to drink carouse).
early 15c., crise, crisis, "decisive point in the progress of a disease," also "vitally important or decisive state of things, point at which change must come, for better or worse," from Latinized form of Greek krisis "turning point in a disease, that change which indicates recovery or death" (used as such by Hippocrates and Galen), literally "judgment, result of a trial, selection," from krinein "to separate, decide, judge," from PIE root *krei- "to sieve," thus "discriminate, distinguish."
Transferred non-medical sense is 1620s in English. A German term for "mid-life crisis" is Torschlusspanik, literally "shut-door-panic," fear of being on the wrong side of a closing gate.
well-known plant of the daisy family found in Europe, Asia, and North America, with a tapering, milky root, producing one large, yellow flower, late 14c., a contraction of dent-de-lioun, from Old French dent de lion, literally "lion's tooth" (from its toothed leaves), a translation of Medieval Latin dens leonis. From Latin dens (genitive dentis) "tooth," from PIE root *dent- "tooth" + leonis, genitive of leo "lion" (see lion).
Other folk names, like tell-time refer to the custom of telling the time by blowing the white seed (the number of puffs required to blow them all off supposedly being the number of the hour), or to the plant's regular opening and closing with daylight. Other names refer to its diuretic qualities (Middle English piss-a-bed, French pissenlit).