Etymology
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disclaim (v.)

c. 1400, disclaimen, "renounce, relinquish, or repudiate a legal claim," originally in a feudal sense, from Anglo-French disclaimer(c. 1300), Old French desclamer "disclaim, disavow," from des- (see dis-) + clamer "to claim," from Latin clamare "to cry out, shout, proclaim," from PIE root *kele- (2) "to shout." Meaning "disavow any connection with, reject as not belonging to oneself" is from 1590s. Related: Disclaimed; disclaiming.

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pretension (n.)

mid-15c., pretensioun, "assertion, allegation; objection; intention; signification," from Medieval Latin pretensionem (nominative pretensio), noun of action from past-participle stem of Latin praetendere "stretch in front, put forward, allege" (see pretend (v.)).

Meaning "unproven claim" is from c. 1600. The sense of "ostentation" is from 1727, from the notion of "act of putting forth a (false) claim to merit, dignity, or importance."

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reassert (v.)

also re-assert, 1660s, "proclaim or manifest (a claim, statement, etc.) anew," from re- "back, again" + assert. Related: Reasserted; reasserting; reassertion.

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preferment (n.)

mid-15c., preferrement, "furtherance of an undertaking; advancement or promotion in status; a prior claim or right," from prefer + -ment. From 1530s as "a superior place or office," especially in the Church.

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disclaimer (n.)

"denial of a claim," mid-15c., from Anglo-French disclaimer "disavowal, denial," infinitive used as a noun in French (see disclaim). Compare waiver.

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assertion (n.)

early 15c., assercioun, "a declaration, confirmation" from Old French assercion (14c.) or directly from Late Latin assertionem (nominative assertio), noun of action from past-participle stem of Latin asserere/adserere "to claim, lay claim to, appropriate," from ad "to" (see ad-) + serere "join together, put in a row" (from PIE root *ser- (2) "to line up"). By "joining oneself" to a particular view, one "claimed" or "maintained" it. From mid-15c. as "an unsupported statement."

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four-flusher (n.)
"cheat, dishonest person," 1900, from verb four-flush "to bluff a poker hand, claim a flush (n.) while holding only four cards in the suit" (1896).
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vengeance (n.)

c. 1300, from Anglo-French vengeaunce, Old French vengeance, venjance "revenge, retribution" (12c.), from vengier "take revenge," from Latin vindicare "assert a claim, claim as one's own; avenge, punish" (see vindicate).

Vengeance is mine, ... saith the Lord. Therefore if thine enemy hunger, feed him; if he thirst, give him drink; for in so doing thou shalt heap coals of fire upon his head. [Paul to the Romans, xii:19-20]
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challenge (n.)
Origin and meaning of challenge
early 14c., "something one can be accused of, a fault, blemish;" mid-14c., "false accusation, malicious charge; accusation of wrong-doing," also "act of laying claim" (to something), from Anglo-French chalenge, Old French chalonge "calumny, slander; demand, opposition," in legal use, "accusation, claim, dispute," from Anglo-French chalengier, Old French chalongier "to accuse, to dispute" (see challenge (v.)). Accusatory connotations died out 17c. Meanings "an objection" in law, etc.; "a calling to fight" are from mid-15c. Meaning "difficult task" is from 1954.
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arrogation (n.)

"act of taking more than one's due," 1590s, from Latin arrogationem (nominative arrogatio) "a taking to oneself," noun of action from past-participle stem of arrogare "to claim for oneself" (see arrogate).

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