late 14c., "action of appraising; manner of judging; opinion," from Old French estimacion "evaluation, value; calculation, planning," from Latin aestimationem (nominative aestimatio) "a valuation," from past participle stem of aestimare "to value" (see esteem (v.)). Meaning "appreciation" is from 1520s. That of "process of forming an approximate notion" is from c. 1400.
c. 1300, appareil, "fighting equipment or accouterments, armor, weapons;" mid-14c., "furnishings, trappings;" late 14c., "personal outfit, a person's outer clothing, attire," from Old French apareil "preparation, planning; dress, vestments," from apareillier (see apparel (v.)). Middle English had also apparelment (late 14c.).
"ancient Greek city-state," 1894, from Greek polis, ptolis "citadel, fort, city, one's city; the state, community, citizens," from PIE *tpolh- "citadel; enclosed space, often on high ground; hilltop" (source also of Sanskrit pur, puram, genitive purah "city, citadel," Lithuanian pilis "fortress").
1728, "make a plan of; put on paper the parts, dimensions, and methods of construction of," from plan (n.). By 1737 as "to scheme, to devise ways and means for (the doing of something)." Related: Planned; planning; plans. Planned economy is attested by 1931. Planned Parenthood (1942) formerly was Birth Control Federation of America.
"fortress commanding a city," 1580s, from French citadelle (15c.), from Italian cittadella, diminutive of Old Italian cittade "city" (Modern Italian citta), from Latin civitatem (nominative civitas; also source of Portuguese citadella, Spanish ciuadela; see city).
Russian, "city," from Old Church Slavonic gradŭ "town, city, citadel," from PIE *ghor-dho-, from root *gher- (1) "to grasp, enclose," with derivatives referring to enclosure.