"branched cluster of lights suspended from a ceiling," 1736, from Middle English chaundeler "candlestick" (late 14c.), from Old French chandelier (n.1), 12c., earlier chandelabre "candlestick, candelabrum" (10c.), from Latin candelabrum, from candela "candle" (see candle).
Originally a candlestick, then a cluster of them; finally a distinction was made (with a re-spelling mid-18c. in French fashion; during 17c. the French spelling referred to a military device), between a candelabrum, which stands, and a chandelier, which hangs.
mid-13c., ransaken, "to plunder; to make a search, search thoroughly," from a Scandinavian source akin to Old Norse rannsaka "to pillage," literally "search the house" (especially legally, for stolen goods), from rann "house," from Proto-Germanic *raznan (c.f. Gothic razn, Old English ærn "house;" Old English rægn "a plank, ceiling;" see barn) + saka "to search," related to Old Norse soekja "seek" (see seek). Properly it would have evolved as *ransake; the present form perhaps was influenced by sack (v.1). Related: Ransacked; ransacking.
"pertaining to the earth," 1846, from -ian + Latin tellus (genitive telluris) "earth, land, ground; the earth" (related to Tellus, Roman goddess of the earth), probably from PIE root *telho- "ground, floor" (source also of Sanskrit talam "plain, sole of the foot;" Greek telia "dice board;" Latvian telint "to spread out;" Lithuanian tils "bottom of a barge, flooring," patalas "bed;" Old Prussian tallus "floor;" Old Church Slavonic tilo "floor;" Russian potolok "ceiling;" Old Irish talam "earth;" Old Norse ilja, Middle Dutch dele "plank"). Or possibly from PIE *telh- "to bear." As a noun, "inhabitant of Earth" (with reference to supposed inhabitants of other worlds) from 1847.
"outer upper covering of a house or other building," Middle English rof, from Old English hrof "roof," also "ceiling," hence figuratively "highest point, top, summit" also "heaven, the sky;" from Proto-Germanic *khrofam (source also of Old Frisian rhoof "roof," Middle Dutch roof, rouf "cover, roof," Dutch roef "deckhouse, cabin, coffin-lid," Middle High German rof "penthouse," Old Norse hrof "boat shed").
No apparent connections outside Germanic. "English alone has retained the word in a general sense, for which the other languages use forms corresponding to OE. þæc thatch" [OED]. Meaning "top of a carriage, etc." is by 1706. The meaning "upper part of the mouth, the hard palate" was in late Old English (hrof ðæs muðes). To raise the roof "create an uproar" is attested from 1860, originally in U.S. Southern dialect.
"contrivance for catching unawares," late Old English træppe, treppe "snare, trap," from Proto-Germanic *trep- (source also of Middle Dutch trappe "trap, snare"), related to Germanic words for "stair, step, tread" (Middle Dutch, Middle Low German trappe, treppe, German Treppe "step, stair," English tread (v.)).
This is probably literally "that on or into which one steps," from PIE *dreb-, an extended form of a root *der- (1), base of words meaning "to run, walk, step." The English word is probably akin to Old French trape, Spanish trampa "trap, pit, snare," but the exact relationship is uncertain.
The sense of "deceitful practice, device or contrivance to betray one" is recorded from c. 1400. The meaning "U-shaped section of a drain pipe" is from 1833. Slang meaning "mouth" is from 1776. Speed trap is by 1908. Trap-door "door in a floor or ceiling" (often hidden and leading to a passageway or secret place) is attested from late 14c. (trappe-dore).
1708, "vaulted building; arched roof or ceiling," from Latin camera "a vault, vaulted room" (source also of Italian camera, Spanish camara, French chambre), from Greek kamara "vaulted chamber, anything with an arched cover," which is of uncertain origin. A doublet of chamber. Old Church Slavonic komora, Lithuanian kamara, Old Irish camra all are borrowings from Latin.
The word also was used from early 18c. as a short form of Modern Latin camera obscura "dark chamber" (a black box with a lens that could project images of external objects), contrasted with camera lucida (c. 1750, Latin for "light chamber"), which uses prisms to produce on paper beneath the instrument an image which can be traced of a distant object.
This sense was expanded to become the word for "picture-taking device used by photographers" (a modification of the camera obscura) when modern photography began c. 1840. The word was extended to television filming devices from 1928. Camera-shy is attested from 1890. Camera-man is from 1908.
It forms all or part of: archivolt; circumvolve; convoluted; convolution; devolve; elytra; evolution; evolve; Helicon; helicopter; helix; helminth; lorimer; ileus; involve; revolt; revolution; revolve; valve; vault (v.1) "jump or leap over;" vault (n.1) "arched roof or ceiling;" volte-face; voluble; volume; voluminous; volute; volvox; volvulus; vulva; wale; walk; wallet; wallow; waltz; well (v.) "to spring, rise, gush;" welter; whelk; willow.
It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit valate "turns round," ulvam "womb, vulva;" Lithuanian valtis "twine, net," vilnis "wave," apvalus "round;" Old Church Slavonic valiti "roll, welter," vlŭna "wave;" Greek eluein "to roll round, wind, enwrap," eilein "twist, turn, squeeze; revolve, rotate," helix "spiral object;" Latin volvere "to turn, twist;" Gothic walwjan "to roll;" Old English wealwian "roll," weoloc "whelk, spiral-shelled mollusk;" Old High German walzan "to roll, waltz;" Old Irish fulumain "rolling;" Welsh olwyn "wheel."