"elder statesman of Japan," 1876, from Japanese, literally "first elders."
"that which takes precedence, that which necessarily goes before," noun use of Latin neuter of prior (adj.) "former, earlier" (see prior (adj.)). The hybrid car (with a capital P- ) debuted in 1997 in Japan, 2001 in U.S. and Europe. The name supposedly was chosen because the car was regarded as a predecessor of new types. The classically proper plural of the car name is said to be Priora, but that is for the adjective.
South Korean capital, from Korean soul, literally "capital." It was the national capital from 1392 until Japanese annexation in 1910.
late 14c., "warlike, of or pertaining to war," from Medieval Latin martialis "of Mars or war," from Latin Mars (genitive Martis), Roman god of war (see Mars). The sense of "connected with military organizations" (opposed to civil) is from late 15c. and survives in court-martial. Also, occasionally (with a capital M-), "pertaining to or resembling the planet Mars" (1620s). Related: Martially. Martial law, "military rule over civilians," first recorded 1530s. Martial arts (1909) as a collective name for the fighting sports of Japan and the surrounding region translates Japanese bujutsu.
Chinese capital, from bei "north" + jing "capital" (as opposed to Nanking, literally "southern capital").
also daimio, former title of the chief feudal nobles of Japan, vassals of the mikado, 1839, from Japanese, literally "big name," from Chinese dai "great" + mio, myo "name."