Etymology
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October 

late Old English, from Latin October (mensis), from octo "eight," from PIE root *octo(u)- "eight" (see eight). The eighth month of the old Roman calendar (pre-46 B.C.E.), which began the year in March. For -ber see December. Replaced Old English winterfylleð. In Russian history, the October Revolution (in which the Bolsheviks overthrew the Provisional Government) happened Nov. 7, 1917, but because Russia had not at that time adopted the Gregorian calendar reform, this date was reckoned there (Old Style) as Oct. 25.

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brumal (adj.)
"belonging to winter," 1510s, from Latin brumalis, from bruma "winter" (see brume). The Latin word also is the ultimate source of Brumaire, second month (Oct. 22-Nov. 20) in the calendar of the French Republic, literally "the foggy month;" coined 1793 by Fabre d'Eglantine from French brume "fog."
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canonize (v.)
late 14c., "to place officially in the canon or calendar of saints," from Old French canonisier and directly from Medieval Latin canonizare, from Late Latin canon "church rule, catalogue of saints" (see canon (n.1)). Related: Canonized; canonizing.
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Barnabas 
surname of Joseph the Levite of Cyprus (Acts iv.36), literally "son of exhortation," from Aramaic (Semitic) bar "son" + nabha "prophecy, exhortation." St. Barnabas' Day (colloquially St. Barnaby), June 11, in the Old Style calendar was reckoned the longest day of the year (Barnaby the Bright).
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neve (n.)

"field of granular snow, firn," 1843, from French névé (19c.), probably from Savoyard névi "mass of snow," from Latin nivem (nominative nix) "snow" (source of French neige), from PIE root *sneigwh- "snow, to snow" (see snow (n.)). Nivôse was the fourth month of the French revolutionary calendar, Dec. 21 to Jan. 19.

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martyrology (n.)

"history of the lives, sufferings, and deaths of Christian martyrs," 1590s, a native formation from martyr (n.) + -ology, or else from Church Latin martyrologium, from Ecclesiastical Greek martyrologicon. Especially, in the Catholic Church, "a list or calendar of martyrs, arranged according to their anniversaries." Middle English had martiloge "the register of martyred saints" (late 14c.), from Medieval Latin martilogium. Related: Martyrological.

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republican (adj.)

1712, "belonging to a republic, of the nature of a republic, consonant to the principles of a republic," from republic + -an. With capital R-, "of, pertaining to, or favoring one of the various American parties that have been called Republican," by 1806 (the modern GOP dates from 1854). The French republican calendar was in use from Nov. 26, 1793 to Dec. 31, 1805. Earlier adjectives included republical
(1650s), republicarian (1680s).

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movable (adj.)
also moveable, late 14c., "disposed to movement;" c. 1400, "capable of being moved," from Old French movable, from moveir (see move (v.)). A moveable feast (early 15c.) is one in the Church calendar which, though always on the same day of the week, varies its date from year to year. Related: Movability.
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Pyanepsia (n.)

festival in honor of Apollo on the 7th of Pyanepsion (fourth month of the Attic calendar, corresponding to October-November), from Greek Pyanepsia (plural), literally "the feast of cooking beans," from pyanos, variant of kyamos, name of a kind of bean, a word of unknown origin (perhaps foreign or Pre-Greek), + epsein "to boil, cook." At this festival a dish of pulse was offered to the god.

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sniper (n.)

"sharpshooter; one who shoots from a hidden place," 1824, agent noun from snipe (v.). The birds were considered a challenging target for an expert shooter:

Snipe Shooting is a good trial of the gunner's skill, who often engages in this diversion, without the assistance of a dog of any kind; a steady pointer, however, is a good companion. [Sportsman's Calendar, London, December 1818]
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