Etymology
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blue peter (n.)

a nautical term for a blue flag having a white square in the center, hoisted at the fore royal masthead as a signal to report on board as the vessel is about to go to sea, attested by c. 1800, from blue (adj.1), but the significance of peter is uncertain and disputed. Two common guesses are that it is an abbreviation of repeater or that it stands for French partir

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moon-up (n.)

"moonrise," U.S. dialectal, 1907, from moon (n.) probably based on sun-up (q.v.).

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moon-shot (n.)

"launching of a spacecraft toward the moon," 1958, from moon (n.) + shot (n.).

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blue-plate (adj.)
in reference to restaurant meals, 1918, from blue (adj.1) + plate (n.). The term arose in the trade, to refer to a complete dinner offered at a reasonable price and served on a single, large plate of a good grade of china.
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blue-nose (n.)
"native or inhabitant of Nova Scotia," 1838, from blue (adj.1) + nose (n.). Perhaps from cold, but it is recorded in 1824 as a type of potato grown there.
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blue-chip (adj.)
1904 in reference to the high-value poker counter, also in the figurative sense of "valuable;" stock exchange sense, in reference to "shares considered a reliable investment," is first recorded 1929; especially of stocks that saw spectacular rises in value in the four years or so before the Wall Street crash of that year wiped out most of it. See blue (adj.1) + chip (n.1).
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blue laws 

severe Puritanical code said to have been enacted mid-17c. at the founding of New Haven and Connecticut colonies, 1781; of uncertain signification, perhaps from the notion of coldness, or from one of the figurative senses in blue (adj.1). Blue was the color adopted by 17c. Scottish Covenanters (in contradistinction to the royal red) and hence the color for a time acquired an association with strictness in morals or religion. Or perhaps connected to bluestocking in the sense of "puritanically plain or mean" (see bluestocking, which is a different application of the same term); the parliament of 1653 was derisively called the bluestocking parliament.

The assertion by some writers of the existence of the blue laws has no other basis than the adoption by the first authorities of the New Haven colony of the Scriptures as their code of law and government, and their strict application of Mosaic principles. [Century Dictionary]

Long, detailed lists of them often are given, but the original reference (in an anonymous history of Connecticut printed in London during the Revolution) says they were so-called by the neighboring colonies, "were never suffered to be printed," and then gives its own long list of them in quotations. The common explanation (dating to 1788) that they were written on blue paper is not now considered valid.

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blue-collar (adj.)
1949, from blue (adj.1) + collar (n.). From the common color of men's work shirts.
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blue-eyed (adj.)
"having blue eyes," c. 1600, from blue (adj.1) + -eyed. Meaning "favored; innocent" is by 1924.
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blue-jacket (n.)
also bluejacket, "a sailor" (as distinguished from a marine), 1830, from blue (adj.1) + jacket (n.).
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