Etymology
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caution (n.)

c. 1300, caucioun, "bail, guarantee, pledge," from Old French caution "security, surety" (13c.), from Latin cautionem (nominative cautio) "caution, care, foresight, precaution," noun of action from past participle stem of cavere "to be on one's guard" (from PIE root *keu- "to see, observe, perceive").

The Latin sense re-emerged in English as "prudence in regard to danger" (1650s). Meaning "word of warning, monitory advice" is from c. 1600. Meaning "anything which excites alarm or astonishment" is U.S. slang, 1835.

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scoop (v.)

mid-14c., scōpen, "to bail out, draw out with a scoop," from scoop (n.) and from Middle Low German schüppen "to draw water," Middle Dutch schoppen, from Proto-Germanic *skuppon (source also of Old Saxon skeppian, Dutch scheppen, Old High German scaphan, German schöpfen "to scoop, ladle out"), from PIE root *skeubh- (source also of Old English sceofl "shovel," Old Saxon skufla; see shove (v.)).

The meaning "remove soft or loose material with a concave instrument" is by 1620s. In the journalistic sense by 1884 (see scoop (n.)). Related: Scooped; scooping.

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hostage (n.)
late 13c., from Old French ostage, hostage "kindness, hospitality; residence, dwelling; rent, tribute; compensation; guarantee, pledge, bail; person given as security or hostage" (11c., Modern French ôtage), which is of uncertain origin. Either from hoste "guest" (see host (n.1)) via notion of "a lodger held by a landlord as security" [Watkins, Barnhart]; or else from Late Latin obsidanus "condition of being held as security," from obses "hostage," from ob- "before" + base of sedere "to sit," with spelling influenced by Latin hostis. [OED, Century Dictionary]. Modern political/terrorism sense is from 1970.
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recognizance (n.)

early 14c., reconisaunce, in law, "a bond acknowledging some obligation binding one over to do some particular act," from Old French reconissance "acknowledgment, recognition" (12c., Modern French reconnaissance), from reconoiss-, present-participle stem of reconoistre (see recognize).

By c. 1400 as "acknowledgment of subjection or allegiance" (to God or a temporal power). The general sense of "act of recognizing, acknowledgement of a person or thing" is from 15c. To be discharged or released (up)on (one's) own recognizance (1851) as a phrase for "be released without bail on condition of good behavior" in the jargon of police blotters and district courts, is based on the written promise that you sign to get it, to appear in court as required. Related: Recognizant.

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bailiwick (n.)
"district of a bailiff, jurisdiction of a royal officer or under-sheriff," mid-15c., contraction of baillifwik, from bailiff (q.v.) + Middle English wik, from Old English wic "village" (see wick (n.2)). Figurative sense of "one's natural or proper sphere" recorded by 1843.
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wed (v.)

Old English weddian "to pledge oneself, covenant to do something, vow; betroth, marry," also "unite (two other people) in a marriage, conduct the marriage ceremony," from Proto-Germanic *wadja (source also of Old Norse veðja, Danish vedde "to bet, wager," Old Frisian weddia "to promise," Gothic ga-wadjon "to betroth"), from PIE root *wadh- (1) "to pledge, to redeem a pledge" (source also of Latin vas, genitive vadis "bail, security," Lithuanian vaduoti "to redeem a pledge"), which is of uncertain origin.

The sense has remained closer to "pledge" in other Germanic languages (such as German Wette "a bet, wager"); development to "marry" is unique to English. "Originally 'make a woman one's wife by giving a pledge or earnest money', then used of either party" [Buck]. Passively, of two people, "to be joined as husband and wife," from c. 1200. Related: Wedded; wedding.

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leg (n.)

late 13c., from a Scandinavian source, probably Old Norse leggr "a leg, bone of the arm or leg," from Proto-Germanic *lagjaz (cognates Danish læg, Swedish läg "the calf of the leg"), a word with no certain ulterior connections. Perhaps from a PIE root meaning "to bend" [Buck]. For Old Norse senses, compare Bein, the German word for "leg," in Old High German "bone, leg" (see bone (n.)). Replaced Old English shank (n.), itself also perhaps from a root meaning "crooked."

Distinguished from an arm, leg, or fin in being used for support. Of triangle sides from 1650s (translating Greek skelos, literally "leg"). Extended to furniture supports from 1670s. Meaning "part of pants which cover the leg" is from 1570s. By 1870s as an adjective it had a salacious suggestion of artistic displays focused on the female form, such as leg-piece in theater jargon, leg-business as slang for "ballet."

The meaning "a part or stage of a journey or race" (1920) is from earlier sailing sense of "a run made by a ship on a single tack when beating to windward" (1867), which was usually qualified as long leg, short leg, etc. Slang phrase shake a leg is attested from 1869 as "dance," 1880 as "hurry up." To be on (one's) last legs "at the end of one's life" is from 1590s, the notion is of something that serves one for support and keeps one moving. To take leg bail was old slang for "run away" (1774). Legs "ability to be an enduring success, staying power" is from 1970s show business slang.

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