Etymology
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up (v.)

1550s, "to drive and catch (swans)," from up (adv.). Intransitive meaning "get up, rise to one's feet" (as in up and leave) is recorded from 1640s. Sense of "to move upward" is recorded from 1737. Meaning "increase" (as in up the price of oil) is attested from 1915. Compare Old English verb uppian "to rise up, swell." Related: Upped; upping. Upping block, used for mounting or dismounting horses, carriages, etc., is attested from 1796 (earlier was horsing-block, 1660s).

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up (adj.)

c. 1300, "dwelling inland or upland," from up (adv.). Meaning "going up" is from 1784. From 1815 as "excited, exhilarated, happy," hence "enthusiastic, optimistic." Up-and-coming "promising" is from 1848. Musical up-tempo (adj.) is recorded from 1948.

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back off (v.)

"retreat, stop annoying someone," by 1938, from the verbal phrase, from back (v.) + off (adv.).

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back-formation (n.)

also back formation, "word formed from an existing word, often by removal of a suffix or supposed suffix," by 1887, from back (adv.) + formation.

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get back (v.)

c. 1600 (intransitive) "to return;" 1808 (transitive) "to recover (something);" from get (v.) + back.(adv.). Meaning "retaliate" is attested by 1888.

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fat-back (n.)

also fatback, cut of pork, 1903, from fat + back (n.). So called because taken from the back of the animal.

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back seat (n.)

also back-seat, 1832, originally of coaches, from back (adj.) + seat (n.). Used figuratively for "less or least prominent position" by 1868. Back-seat driver "passenger who gives the driver unwanted advice" is attested by 1923.

You know him. The one who sits on the back seat and tells the driver what to do. He issues a lot of instructions, gives advice, offers no end of criticism and doesn't do a bit of work. ["The Back Seat Driver," Wisconsin Congregational Church Life, May 1923]
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back-ache (n.)

also backache, "dull or continuous pain in the back," c. 1600, from back (n.) + ache (n.).

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back-to-nature (adj.)

in reference to a return to simpler ways of living, without modern electricity, manufacturing, conveniences, etc., 1915, from the adverbial phrase; see nature (n.).

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canvas-back (n.)

also canvasback, 1785 as a type of North American duck, so called for the color of the back. Earlier as an adjective for a type of garment made of expensive stuff in front and cheap canvas in the back (c. 1600); from canvas (n.) + back (n.).

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