"state or feeling of a comrade," 1862, an attempt to nativize camaraderie. Comradeship is attested from 1815.
1530s, a failed attempt to restore Greek spelling to the word that had got into English as surgeon. Related: Chirurgery. Compare French chirurgien, the modern spelling, which has been conformed to Latin.
1590s, "trial, attempt, endeavor," also "short, discursive literary composition" (first attested in writings of Francis Bacon, probably in imitation of Montaigne), from French essai "trial, attempt, essay" (in Old French from 12c.), from Late Latin exagium "a weighing, a weight," from Latin exigere "drive out; require, exact; examine, try, test," from ex "out" (see ex-) + agere "to set in motion, drive" (from PIE root *ag- "to drive, draw out or forth, move") apparently meaning here "to weigh." The suggestion is of unpolished writing. Compare assay, also examine.