Etymology
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go-by (n.)
1640s, "an evasion, a leaving behind by artifice," from verbal phrase; see go (v.) + by (adv.). From 1650s as "a passing without notice, intentional disregard." Compare bygone.
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fallacy (n.)
late 15c., "deception, false statement," from Latin fallacia "deception, deceit, trick, artifice," abstract noun from fallax (genitive fallacis) "deceptive," from fallere "deceive" (see fail (v.)). Specific sense in logic, "false syllogism, invalid argumentation," dates from 1550s. An earlier form was fallace (c. 1300), from Old French fallace.
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shifty (adj.)
1560s, "able to manage for oneself, fertile in expedients," from shift (n.1) in secondary sense of "dodge, trick, artifice" + -y (2). Meaning "habitually using dishonest methods, characterized by trickery" first recorded 1837. In a sense "prone to shifting," of the wind, used from 1884. Related: Shiftily; shiftiness.
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hook (v.)
"to bend like a hook," c. 1200 (transitive); early 15c. (intransitive); see hook (n.). Specific meaning "to catch (a fish) with a hook" is from c. 1300; that of "to fasten with hooks" is from 1610s; figurative sense of "catch by artifice" is from 1800. Sense of "make rugs with a hook" is from 1882. Related: Hooked; hooking.
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innocence (n.)
mid-14c., "freedom from guilt or moral wrong," from Old French inocence "innocence; purity, chastity" (12c., Modern French innocence), from Latin innocentia "blamelessness, uprightness, integrity," from innocens "harmless; blameless; disinterested" (see innocent). Meaning "lacking in guile or artifice," as of childhood, is from late 14c. Meaning "freedom from legal wrong" is from 1550s.
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aposiopesis (n.)
rhetorical artifice wherein the speaker suddenly breaks off in the middle of a sentence, 1570s, from Latin, from Greek aposiopesis "a becoming silent," also "rhetorical figure of breaking off," from aposiopan "become silent," from apo "off, away" (see apo-) + siope "silence," from PIE root *swī- "to be silent." Related: Aposiopetic.
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wile (n.)
late Old English, wil "stratagem, trick, sly artifice," perhaps from Old North French *wile (Old French guile), or directly from a Scandinavian source (compare Old Norse vel "trick, craft, fraud," vela "defraud"). Perhaps ultimately related to Old English wicca "wizard" (see Wicca). Lighter sense of "amorous or playful trick" is from c. 1600.
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deception (n.)

early 15c., decepcioun, "act of misleading, a lie, a falsehood," from Old French déception (13c., decepcion) or directly from Late Latin deceptionem (nominative deceptio) "a deceiving," noun of state or action from past-participle stem of Latin decipere "to ensnare, take in, beguile, cheat," from de "from" or pejorative (see de-) + capere "to take," from PIE root *kap- "to grasp."

From mid-15c. as "state of being deceived; error, mistake;" from 1794 as "artifice, cheat, that which deceives."

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artifact (n.)
1821, artefact, "artificial production, anything made or modified by human art," from Italian artefatto, from Latin arte "by skill" (ablative of ars "art;" see art (n.)) + factum "thing made," from facere "to make, do" (from PIE root *dhe- "to set, put"). The word is attested in German from 1791. The English spelling with -i- is attested by 1884, by influence of the Latin stem (as in artifice). Originally a word in anatomy to denote artificial conditions caused by operation, etc.; archaeological application in English dates from 1885 (in German from 1875).
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gallant (adj.)
mid-15c., "showy, finely dressed; gay, merry," from Old French galant "courteous," earlier "amusing, entertaining; lively, bold" (14c.), present participle of galer "rejoice, make merry," which is of uncertain origin. Perhaps from a Latinized verb formed from Frankish *wala- "good, well," from Proto-Germanic *wal- (source also of Old High German wallon "to wander, go on a pilgrimage"), from PIE root *wel- (2) "to wish, will" (see will (v.)), "but the transition of sense offers difficulties that are not fully cleared up" [OED]. Sense of "politely attentive to women" was adopted early 17c. from French. Attempts to distinguish this sense by accent are an 18c. artifice.
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