1640s, "feeler or horn of an insect or other arthropod," from Latin antenna, antemna "sail yard," the long yard that sticks up on some sails, which is of unknown origin, perhaps from PIE root *temp- "to stretch, extend." In the entomological sense, it is a loan-translation of Aristotle's Greek keraiai "horns" (of insects). Modern use in radio, etc., for "aerial wire" is from 1902. Adjectival forms are antennal (1815), antennary (1833), antennular (1853).
word-forming element used to coin family names in zoology (by being suffixed to the name of the genus whence that of the family is derived), from Latin -idae, plural of noun suffix -ides (see -id).
animal or natural object considered as the emblem of a family or clan, 1760, from Algonquian (probably Ojibwa) -doodem, in odoodeman "his sibling kin, his group or family," hence, "his family mark;" also attested in French c. 1600 in form aoutem among the Micmacs or other Indians of Nova Scotia. Totem pole is 1808, in reference to west coast Canadian Indians.
late 12c., patriarke, "one of the Old Testament fathers," progenitors of the Israelites, from Old French patriarche (11c.) and directly from Late Latin patriarcha (Tertullian), from Greek patriarkhēs "chief or head of a family," from patria "family, clan," from pater "father" (see father (n.)) + arkhein "to rule" (see archon). Also used as an honorific title of certain bishops of the highest rank in the early Church, notably those of Antioch, Alexandria, and Rome. The meaning "the father and ruler of a family" is by 1817.
typeface family, 1917, from name of U.S. typographer Frederic W. Goudy (1865-1947).
"member of a noble family," Old English æðling, from æðel "noble family, race, ancestry; nobility, honor," related to Old English æðele "noble," from Proto-Germanic *athala- (cognates: Old Frisian edila "(great-)grandfather," Old Saxon athali "noble descent, property," Old High German adal "noble family"), which is perhaps from PIE *at-al- "race, family," from *at(i)- "over, beyond, super" + *al- "to nourish." With suffix -ing "belonging to." A common Germanic word, cognates include Old Saxon ediling, Old Frisian etheling, Old High German adaling.
sweet French aperitif, by 1901, trademark name, from the name of a family of French wine merchants.