Etymology
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CEO (n.)
by 1984; abbreviation of chief executive officer.
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quartermaster (n.)

also quarter-master, early 15c., "subordinate officer of a ship," from French quartier-maître or directly from Dutch kwartier-meester; originally a ship's officer whose duties included stowing of the hold; later (c. 1600) an officer in charge of quarters and rations for troops. See quarters.

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stratocracy (n.)
"government by the army, military government," 1650s, from Greek stratos "army, encamped army," literally "that which is spread out" (from PIE root *stere- "to spread"), + -cracy "rule or government by."
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corporal (n.)

lowest noncommissioned army officer, 1570s, from French corporal, from Italian caporale "a corporal," from capo "chief, head," from Latin caput "head," also "leader, guide, chief person" (from PIE root *kaput- "head"). So called because he was in charge of a body of troops. Perhaps influenced by Italian corpo, from Latin corps "body." Or corps may be the source and caput the influence, as OED suggests.

Earlier it meant "a communion cloth" (late 14c.), from Medieval Latin corporalis (palla).

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G.A.R. 
1867, abbreviation of Grand Army of the Republic, the organization founded by union veterans of the American Civil War. The Grand Army was the name given (on the French model) to the army that organized in Washington in 1861 to put down the rebellion.
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Marsellaise (n.)

French national republican song, 1826, from fem. of adjective Marseillais "of Marseilles." The tune originally was "War Song for the Rhine Army," composed (for the Strasbourg volunteers) by royalist officer Capt. Claude Joseph Rouget de Lisle (1760-1836); the current name is because it was sung enthusiastically by soldiers from Marseilles advancing on the Tuileries, Aug. 10, 1792. However, during the Revolution, the city was punished for its royalist Sympathies by being stripped of its name and called instead  Ville-sans-Nom "city without a name" (which is, of course, a name).

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stratography (n.)
"description of armies," 1810, from Greek stratos "army, encamped army" (literally "that which is spread out;" from PIE root *stere- "to spread") + -graphy.
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shogun (n.)
1610s, "hereditary commander of a Japanese army," from Japanese (sei-i-tai) shogun "(barbarian-subduing) chief" (late 12c.), sound-substitution for Chinese chiang chiin, literally "lead army."
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kriegspiel (n.)

war games played on maps with blocks representing bodies of soldiers, 1873 (once, from 1811, as a German word in English), from German Kriegsspiel, literally "war game," from Krieg "war," from Middle High German kriec, "combat," mostly "exertion, effort; opposition, enmity, resistance," from Old High German chreg "stubbornness, defiance, obstinacy," from Proto-Germanic *krig-, which is perhaps from PIE root *gwere- (1) "heavy" or cognate with Greek hybris "violence" (see hubris; also see war (n.)). For second element, see spiel (n.). Introduced 1870s as officer training in British army.

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verger (n.)
"one who carries a verge as an officer of the church," c. 1400, probably from Anglo-French *verger, from verge (see verge (n.)).
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