Etymology
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militia (n.)

1580s, "system of military discipline," from Latin militia "military service, warfare," from miles "soldier" (see military (adj.)). The sense of "citizen army" (as distinct from professional soldiers) is first recorded 1690s, perhaps from a sense in French cognate milice. Historically, the Anglo-Saxon forces that resisted the Vikings were militias, raised by counties. In U.S. history, by 1777 as "the whole body of men declared by law amenable to military service, without enlistment, whether armed and drilled or not" [Century Dictionary]. In early 19c. they were under control of the states, enrolled and drilled according to military law but not as regular soldiers, and called out periodically for drill and exercise and in emergency for actual service.

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lancer (n.)

1580s, "soldier armed with a lance," from French lancier "soldier, knight armed with a lance," from Old French lance (see lance (n.)).

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gunny (n.2)

1940s, Armed Forces slang, short for gunnery sergeant.

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arm (n.2)

[weapon], c. 1300, armes (plural) "weapons of a warrior," from Old French armes (plural), "arms, weapons; war, warfare" (11c.), from Latin arma "weapons" (including armor), literally "tools, implements (of war)," from PIE *ar(ə)mo-, suffixed form of root *ar- "to fit together." The notion seems to be "that which is fitted together." Compare arm (n.1).

The meaning "branch of military service" is from 1798, hence "branch of any organization" (by 1952). The meaning "heraldic insignia" (in coat of arms, etc.) is early 14c., from a use in Old French; originally they were borne on shields of fully armed knights or barons. To be up in arms figuratively is from 1704; to bear arms "do military service" is by 1640s.

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therapy (n.)

1846, "medical treatment of disease," from Modern Latin therapia, from Greek therapeia "curing, healing, service done to the sick; a waiting on, service," from therapeuein "to cure, treat medically," literally "attend, do service, take care of" (see therapeutic).

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hoplite (n.)

"heavy-armed foot soldier of ancient Greece," 1727, from Greek hoplites "heavy-armed," as a noun, "heavy-armed soldier, man-at-arms," from hopla "arms and armor, gear for war," plural of hoplon "tool, weapon, implement." One who carries a large shield, as opposed to a peltastes, so called for his small, light shield (pelte).

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octopod 

1826 (adj.), "eight-footed or eight-armed;" 1835 (n.) "an eight-footed or eight-armed animal," especially an octopus, from Latinized form of Greek oktōpod-, stem of oktōpous (see octopus).

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Wehrmacht (n.)

"the armed forces of Germany," 1935, from German Wehrmacht (name of the armed forces 1921-1945), from Wehr "defense" (from PIE root *wer- (4) "to cover") + Macht "might" (from PIE root *magh- "to be able, have power").

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militiaman (n.)

"one who belongs to an organized and armed militia, member of a militia force," 1780, from militia + man (n.).

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rifleman (n.)

"man armed with a rifle, one skilled in shooting with a rifle," 1775, from rifle (n.) + man (n.). Formerly also a military designation of a soldier armed with a rifle (when most of the infantry carried muskets).

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