kind of arc lamp used as a studio light, 1921, from Bavarian-born U.S. engineers brothers Anton and John Kliegl, who invented it.
"arc marking the distance of a star from the north or south point of the meridian," late 14c., from Old French azimut, from Arabic as-sumut "the ways," plural of as-samt "the way, direction" (see zenith). Related: Azimuthal.
1926, a word from the early days of radio (see blooper). In baseball, "hit a ball in a high arc over the head of a fielder," by 1940. Related: Blooped; blooping. As a noun from 1931.
interstellar distance measure, 1913, from first elements of parallax second. It is the distance at which an object has parallax (viewed from Earth at an interval of six months and halved) of one second of arc, or about 3.26 light-years.
"send up in a slow, high arc," 1869, of artillery shells; 1875 of tennis strokes, of uncertain origin, perhaps somehow from some sense in lob (n.). Earlier the verb meant "to throw slowly or gently" in bowling (1824) Related: Lobbed; lobbing. The noun in the "high, arcing throw or hit" sense (originally in tennis) is from 1875, from the verb.
early 14c., "structure built against a wall to give it stability," from Old French (arc) botrez "flying buttress," apparently from bouter, boter "to thrust against," a word of Frankish origin (compare Old Norse bauta "to strike, beat"), from Proto-Germanic *butan, from PIE root *bhau- "to strike." The figurative sense "any source of support" is from mid-15c.
one of the three fundamental functions of trigonometry, 1590s (in Thomas Fale's "Horologiographia, the Art of Dialling"), from Latin sinus "fold in a garment, bend, curve, bosom" (see sinus). The Latin word was used mid-12c. by Gherardo of Cremona's Medieval Latin translation of Arabic geometrical texts to render Arabic jiba "chord of an arc, sine" (from Sanskrit jya "bowstring"), which he confused with jaib "bundle, bosom, fold in a garment." The engineering sine wave is attested from 1915.
"blunder," 1943, apparently first in stage jargon, perhaps from the baseball slang meaning "a fly ball in a high arc missed by the fielder" (1937) or else from the earlier meaning "radio receiver that interferes with nearby sets" when a careless operator throws it into oscillation (1926), in which case it imitates the resulting sound (compare bloop).
instrument for determining latitude in navigation and surveying, 1620s, from Modern Latin sextans, which is said to have been first used in this sense c. 1600 by Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe, from Latin sextans "a sixth, a sixth part," from sex "six" (see six). So called because the sextans has a graduated arc equal to a sixth part of a circle. In ancient Rome, sextans also was the name of a coin of the republic worth one-sixth of an as. Related: Sextantal.
"maid, virgin, young woman," mid-15c., especially in historical reference to Joan of Arc, the "Maid of Orleans" (called in Old French la pucelle from c. 1423), according to French sources from Vulgar Latin *pulicella "maid" (source also of Italian pulcella), diminutive of Latin pulla, fem. of pullus "young animal," especially a chicken (see foal (n.)), but there are difficulties with this derivation. Also, in 16c.-17c. English, "a drab, a slut; a wanton girl, a harlot."