1530s, "to fill with boldness or courage," from Latin animatus past participle of animare "give breath to," also "to endow with a particular spirit, to give courage to, enliven," from anima "life, breath" (see animus). Sense of "give natural life to" in English attested from 1742. Meaning "render in moving pictures" is by 1888 (animated pictures); in reference to cinematic cartoons by 1911. Related: Animated; animating.
mid-14c., "loftiness of thought or purpose, greatness of mind or heart, habit of feeling and acting worthily under all circumstances," from Old French magnanimité "high-mindedness, generosity of spirit," from Latin magnanimitatem (nominative magnanimitas) "greatness of soul, high-mindedness," from magnanimus "having a great soul," from magnus "great" (from PIE root *meg- "great") + animus "mind, soul, spirit" (see animus).
Probably a loan-translation of Greek megalopsykhos "high-souled, generous" (Aristotle) or megathymus "great-hearted." The narrower sense of "superiority to petty resentments or jealousies, generous disregard of injuries" (by 1771).
It forms all or part of: anemo-; anemometer; anemone; anima; animadversion; animadvert; animal; animalcule; animalistic; animate; animation; animatronic; anime; animism; animosity; animus; Enid; equanimity; longanimity; magnanimous; pusillanimous; unanimous.
It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit aniti "breathes;" Greek anemos "wind;" Latin animus "rational soul, mind, life, mental powers, consciousness, sensibility; courage, desire," anima "living being, soul, mind, disposition, passion, courage, anger, spirit, feeling;" Old Irish anal, Welsh anadl "breath," Old Irish animm "soul;" Gothic uzanan "to exhale," Old Norse anda "to breathe," Old English eðian "to breathe;" Old Church Slavonic vonja "smell, breath;" Armenian anjn "soul."
"emotional condition, state of mind as regards passion or feeling," c. 1300, from Old English mod "heart, frame of mind, spirit; courage, arrogance, pride; power, violence" (also used to translate Latin animus, mens), from Proto-Germanic *mōda- (source also of Old Saxon mod "mind, courage," Old Frisian mod "intellect, mind, intention," Old Norse moðr "wrath, anger," Middle Dutch moet, Dutch moed, Old High German muot, German Mut "courage," Gothic moþs "courage, anger"), a word of unknown origin (Boutkan finds no acceptable IE etymology).
A much more vigorous word in Anglo-Saxon than currently, and used widely in compounds (such as modcræftig "intelligent," modful "proud"). The Old English senses now are obsolete. Meaning "a fit of bad temper; sullenness, sudden anger" is by 1859. To be in the mood "in a state of mind to be willing (to do or omit something)" is from 1580s. First record of mood swings is by 1939.
mid-13c., "animating or vital principle in man and animals," from Anglo-French spirit, Old French espirit "spirit, soul" (12c., Modern French esprit) and directly from Latin spiritus "a breathing (respiration, and of the wind), breath; breath of a god," hence "inspiration; breath of life," hence "life;" also "disposition, character; high spirit, vigor, courage; pride, arrogance," related to spirare "to breathe," perhaps from PIE *(s)peis- "to blow" (source also of Old Church Slavonic pisto "to play on the flute"). But de Vaan says "Possibly an onomatopoeic formation imitating the sound of breathing. There are no direct cognates."
Meaning "supernatural immaterial creature; angel, demon; an apparition, invisible corporeal being of an airy nature" is attested from mid-14c.; from late 14c. as "a ghost" (see ghost (n.)). From c. 1500 as "a nature, character"; sense of "essential principle of something" (in a non-theological context, as in Spirit of St. Louis) is attested from 1680s, common after 1800; Spirit of '76 in reference to the qualities that sparked and sustained the American Revolution is attested by 1797 in William Cobbett's "Porcupine's Gazette and Daily Advertiser."
From late 14c. in alchemy as "volatile substance; distillate;" from c. 1500 as "substance capable of uniting the fixed and the volatile elements of the philosopher's stone." Hence spirits "volatile substance;" sense narrowed to "strong alcoholic liquor" by 1670s. This also is the sense in spirit level (1768). Also from mid-14c. as "character, disposition; way of thinking and feeling, state of mind; source of a human desire;" in Middle English freedom of spirit meant "freedom of choice." From late 14c. as "divine substance, divine mind, God;" also "Christ" or His divine nature; "the Holy Ghost; divine power;" also, "extension of divine power to man; inspiration, a charismatic state; charismatic power, especially of prophecy." Also "essential nature, essential quality." From 1580s in metaphoric sense "animation, vitality."
According to Barnhart and OED, originally in English mainly from passages in Vulgate, where the Latin word translates Greek pneuma and Hebrew ruah. Distinction between "soul" and "spirit" (as "seat of emotions") became current in Christian terminology (such as Greek psykhe vs. pneuma, Latin anima vs. spiritus) but "is without significance for earlier periods" [Buck]. Latin spiritus, usually in classical Latin "breath," replaces animus in the sense "spirit" in the imperial period and appears in Christian writings as the usual equivalent of Greek pneuma. Spirit-rapping is from 1852.