Etymology
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arcana (n.)
"hidden things, mysteries," 1590s, a direct adoption of the Latin plural of arcanum "a secret, a mystery," an important word in alchemy, from neuter of adjective arcanus "secret, hidden, private, concealed" (see arcane). Occasionally mistaken for a singular and pluralized as arcanas, because arcana is far more common than arcanum.
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fermentation (n.)

late 14c., in alchemy, with a broad sense; modern scientific sense is from c. 1600; from Late Latin fermentationem (nominative fermentatio), noun of action from past-participle stem of Latin fermentare "to ferment" (see ferment (v.)). Figurative use attested from 1650s.

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transmutation (n.)

late 14c., from Old French transmutacion "transformation, change, metamorphosis" (12c.), from Late Latin transmutationem (nominative transmutatio) "a change, shift," noun of action from past-participle stem of Latin transmutare "change from one condition to another," from trans "across, beyond; thoroughly" (see trans-) + mutare "to change" (from PIE root *mei- (1) "to change, go, move"). A word from alchemy.

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graduation (n.)
early 15c., in alchemy, "a tempering, a refining of something to a certain degree; measurement according to the four degrees of a quality," from graduate (n.). General sense of "a dividing into degrees" is from 1590s; meaning "action of receiving or giving an academic degree" is from early 15c.; in reference to the ceremony where a degree is given, from 1818.
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sublimation (n.)
late 14c., in alchemy, "process of purifying by vaporizing then allowing to cool," from Medieval Latin sublimationem (nominative sublimatio) "refinement," literally "a lifting up, deliverance," noun of action from past participle stem of Latin sublimare "to raise, elevate," from sublimis "lofty, high, exalted; eminent, distinguished" (see sublime).
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glorification (n.)

early 15c. "admission to Heaven, exaltation" (theological), from Late Latin glorificationem (nominative glorificatio), noun of action from past-participle stem of glorificare "to glorify" (see glorify). General sense by mid-19c. Also in 15c. as a term in alchemy, "action of refining; state of being refined." Gloriation "praising" is from c. 1400.

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reiterate (v.)

early 15c., reiteraten, "to repeat (an action or process) again and again," originally in medicine and alchemy, from Late Latin reiteratus, past participle of reiterare "to repeat," from re- "again" (see re-) + iterare "to repeat," from iterum "again" (see iteration). From mid-16c. especially "to say repeatedly, give repeated expression to." Related: Reiterated; reiterating.

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refrigeration (n.)

late 15c., refrigeracion, "act of cooling or freezing," originally in alchemy, from Latin refrigerationem (nominative refrigeratio) "a cooling, mitigation of heat," especially in sickness, noun of action from past participle stem of refrigerare "to cool down," from re- "back, again" (see re-) + frigerare "make cool," from frigus (genitive frigoris) "cold" (see frigid). Specifically "freezing provisions as a means of preserving them" by 1881.

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marcasite (n.)

crystallized pyrite, early 15c., originally in medicine and alchemy, from Medieval Latin marchasita (c. 1200 in translations from Arabic), from Arabic marqashīthā "iron sulfide" (though OED doubts this), attested from 9c.; perhaps ultimately from Persian marquashisha [Klein]. "This name has been used for a number of substances but mainly for iron pyrites and especially for the crystalline forms used in the 18th century for ornaments." [Flood]

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rotation (n.)

1550s, "act of rotating or turning, action of moving round a center," from Latin rotationem (nominative rotatio) "a turning about in a circle," noun of action from past-participle stem of rotare "turn round, revolve, whirl about, roll," from the same source as rota "wheel" (see rotary).

Sense of "a recurring series or period" is by 1610s. Used earlier in alchemy, "transmutation of the four elements into one another" (late 15c.).

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