c. 1600, "alchemy," from chemist + -ry; also see chemical (adj.). The meaning "natural physical process" is from 1640s; the sense of "scientific study of the composition of material things and the changes they undergo" is by 1788. Chemistry in the European mind disengaged itself from alchemy in the mid-1600s; The Academy del Cimento was established in Italy in 1657, the Royal Society in London in 1660, and the Academy of Sciences in Paris in 1666.
The figurative sense of "instinctual attraction or affinity" is attested slightly earlier, from the alchemical sense.
late 14c., in alchemy, with a broad sense; modern scientific sense is from c. 1600; from Late Latin fermentationem (nominative fermentatio), noun of action from past-participle stem of Latin fermentare "to ferment" (see ferment (v.)). Figurative use attested from 1650s.
late 14c., from Old French transmutacion "transformation, change, metamorphosis" (12c.), from Late Latin transmutationem (nominative transmutatio) "a change, shift," noun of action from past-participle stem of Latin transmutare "change from one condition to another," from trans "across, beyond; thoroughly" (see trans-) + mutare "to change" (from PIE root *mei- (1) "to change, go, move"). A word from alchemy.
early 15c. "admission to Heaven, exaltation" (theological), from Late Latin glorificationem (nominative glorificatio), noun of action from past-participle stem of glorificare "to glorify" (see glorify). General sense by mid-19c. Also in 15c. as a term in alchemy, "action of refining; state of being refined." Gloriation "praising" is from c. 1400.
early 15c., reiteraten, "to repeat (an action or process) again and again," originally in medicine and alchemy, from Late Latin reiteratus, past participle of reiterare "to repeat," from re- "again" (see re-) + iterare "to repeat," from iterum "again" (see iteration). From mid-16c. especially "to say repeatedly, give repeated expression to." Related: Reiterated; reiterating.
late 15c., refrigeracion, "act of cooling or freezing," originally in alchemy, from Latin refrigerationem (nominative refrigeratio) "a cooling, mitigation of heat," especially in sickness, noun of action from past participle stem of refrigerare "to cool down," from re- "back, again" (see re-) + frigerare "make cool," from frigus (genitive frigoris) "cold" (see frigid). Specifically "freezing provisions as a means of preserving them" by 1881.