word-forming element meaning "African," from Latin Afr-, stem of Afer, Afri "African" (noun and adjective; see Africa), or directly from African.
word-forming element meaning "other," from Greek allos "other, different," cognate with Latin alius "other," from PIE root *al- (1) "beyond."
word-forming element meaning "high," sometimes also alto- (in cloud names, etc.), from Latin altus "high," literally "grown tall," from PIE root *al- (2) "to grow, nourish."
1887 as an element in compound words in chemistry, from combining form of amine. Amino acid is attested from 1898.
before a vowel amph-, word-forming element meaning "on both sides, of both kinds; on all sides, all around," from Greek amphi (prep., adv.) "round about, on both sides of, all around; about, regarding," which is cognate with Latin ambi-, both from PIE root *ambhi- "around."