Etymology
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salmon (n.)

early 13c., samoun, the North Atlantic salmon, from Anglo-French samoun, Old French salmun (Modern French saumon), from Latin salmonem (nominative salmo) "a salmon," probably originally "leaper," from salire "to leap" (see salient (adj.)), though some dismiss this as folk etymology. Another theory traces the Latin word to Celtic.

Thompson ["Glossary of Greek Fishes"] writes that "The Salmon does not enter the Mediterranean. It is not mentioned by any Greek author, nor by any Latin writer except those two" [Pliny and Ausonius].

It replaced Old English læx, from PIE *lax, the more usual word for the fish (see lox). The classical -l- was restored in English from 16c., though Scott still uses saumon. In reference to a pinkish-orange color like that of the flesh of the fish, it is recorded by 1786. Related: Salmonic.

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Salmonella (n.)

1913, the genus name, coined 1900 in Modern Latin by Joseph Lignières, French-born Argentine bacteriologist, in reference to U.S. veterinary surgeon Daniel E. Salmon (1850-1914), who isolated a type of the bacteria in 1885.

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Salome 

fem. proper name, from Late Latin, from Greek Salome, from Hebrew Shlomit, which is related to shalom "peace" and to Solomon. In biblical lore, the name of the daughter of Herod II and Herodias.

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Salomonic (adj.)

1873, from Late Latin Salomon, from Late Greek Salōmōn, variant of Solomon (see Solomon).

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salon (n.)

1690s, "large room or apartment in a palace or great house," from French salon "reception room" (17c.), from Italian salone "large hall," from sala "hall," from a Germanic source (compare Old English sele, Middle English salle, Old Norse salr "hall," Old High German sal "hall, house," German Saal), from Proto-Germanic *salaz.

This is reconstructed to be from a PIE *sel- (1) "human settlement" (source also of Old Church Slavonic selo "courtyard, village," obsolete Polish siolo, Russian selo "village," Lithuanian sala "village."

The sense of "reception room of a Parisian lady" is by 1810 (the woman who hosts one is a salonnière). The meaning "gathering of fashionable people" is by 1888; the meaning "annual exhibition of contemporary paintings and sculpture in Paris" (1875) is from its originally being held in one of the salons of the Louvre, from a secondary sense of the French word, "spacious or elegant apartment for reception of company or artistic exhibitions." Meaning "establishment for hairdressing and beauty care" is by 1913.

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saloon (n.)

1728, an Englished or otherwise deformed variant of salon (q.v.), and originally meaning the same, "spacious room set apart for reception of company or artistic display."

The specific sense of "large hall in a public place for entertainment or amusement" is from 1747; especially one on a passenger boat (by 1817); it later was used of railway cars furnished as drawing rooms (1842). The sense of "public bar" developed by 1841 in American English. Saloon-keeper "one who keeps a drinking saloon" is by 1839.

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saloop (n.)
"sassafras tea, variously flavored," 1712, originally a variant of salep (q.v.).
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Salopian (adj.)

"of or pertaining to Shropshire" (1706); see Shropshire.

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salsa (n.)

1846 as a kind of sauce served with meat; 1975 as a kind of dance music; separate borrowings from Spanish, literally "sauce," from Vulgar Latin *salsa "condiment" (see sauce (n.)). In American Spanish it is especially used of a kind of relish with chopped-up ingredients; the music is a "blend" of Latin jazz and rock styles.

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salsify (n.)

biennial plant with an esculent root, native to the British Isles and extensively cultivated as a vegetable, 1710, from French salsifis, earlier sercifi, sassify (16c.), which is probably from Italian erba salsifica, from Old Italian salsifica, a word of uncertain origin, perhaps from Latin sal "salt" (from PIE root *sal- "salt") + fricare "to rub" (see friction). Among the native names is goatsbeard.

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