Etymology
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calmly (adv.)

"quietly, peacefully," 1590s, from calm (adj.) + -ly (2).

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calmness (n.)

"quietness, stillness, tranquility," 1510s, from calm (adj.) + -ness.

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calomel (n.)

old name for mercurous chloride, 1670s, from French calomel, supposedly (Littré) from Latinized form of Greek kalos "beautiful" (see Callisto) + melas "black;" but as the powder is yellowish-white this seems difficult. "It is perhaps of significance that the salt is blackened by ammonia and alkalis" [Flood].

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Calor (n.)

proprietary name for a type of liquid gas sold in Britain, 1936, from Latin calor, literally "heat" (from PIE root *kele- (1) "warm").

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caloric (n.)

hypothetical fluid in a now-discarded model of heat exchange, 1792, from French calorique, coined in this sense by Lavoisier, from Latin calorem "heat" (nominative calor), from PIE root *kele- (1) "warm." The adjective, "pertaining to heat or the principle of heat," is recorded from 1865.

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calorie (n.)

unit of heat in physics, 1866, from French calorie, from Latin calor (genitive caloris) "heat," from PIE *kle-os-, suffixed form of root *kele- (1) "warm."

As a unit of energy, defined as "heat required to raise 1 gram of water 1 degree Celsius" (the small or gram calorie), but as a measure of the energy-producing value of food, "heat required to raise 1 kilogram of water 1 degree Celsius" (the large calorie or kilocalorie). In part because of this confused definition, it was largely replaced 1950 in scientific use by the joule. Calorie-counting or -watching as a method of scientific weight-regulation is attested by 1908.

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calorimeter (n.)

"apparatus for measuring heat given off by a body," 1794, from Latin calor "heat" (from PIE root *kele- (1) "warm") + -meter. A hybrid word. Related: Calorimetric; calorimetry.

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calque (n.)

"loan translation of a foreign word or phrase," 1937, from French calque, literally "a copy," from calquer "to trace by rubbing" (itself borrowed in English 1660s as calk "to copy by tracing"), a 16c. borrowing by French of Italian calcare, from Latin calcare "to tread, to press down," from calx (1) "heel" (see calcaneus). 

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calumet (n.)

kind of tobacco pipe used by North American Indians, 1660s, from Canadian French calumet (1630s), from Norman French calumet "pipe, reed pipe" (Old French chalemel, 12c., Modern French chalumeau), from Latin calamellus, diminutive of calamus "reed; something made of reed or shaped like a reed" (see shawm).

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calumniate (v.)

"knowingly utter false charges," 1550s, from Latin calumniatus, past participle of calumniari "to accuse falsely," from calumnia "slander, false accusation" (see calumny). A doublet of challenge. Related: Calumniated; calumniating.

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