Etymology
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stirrup (n.)

Old English stigrap "a support for the foot of a person mounted on a horse," literally "climbing rope," from stige "a climbing, ascent" (from Proto-Germanic *stigaz "climbing;" see stair) + rap (see rope (n.)). Originally a looped rope as a help for mounting. Germanic cognates include Old Norse stigreip, Middle Dutch stegerep, Old High German stegareif, German stegreif. Surgical device used in childbirth, etc., so called from 1884. Stirrup-cup (1680s) was a cup of wine or other drink handed to a rider already on horseback and setting out on a journey, hence "a parting glass" (compare French le vin de l'etrier).

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zymurgy (n.)

branch of chemistry which deals with wine-making and brewing, 1868, from Greek zymo-, combining form of zymē "a leaven" (from PIE root *yeue-; see juice) + -ourgia "a working," from ergon "work" (from PIE root *werg- "to do").

The last word in many standard English dictionaries (and this one); but Century Dictionary ends with Zyxomma ("A genus of Indian dragon-flies") and in the OED [2nd ed.] the last word is zyxt, an obsolete Kentish form of the second person singular of see (v.).

At the dictionary's letter A
Mr. Brandt is young and gay
But when at last he reaches zed
He's in his wheelchair, nearly dead
[Einar Haugen]
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ripple (n.)

"very small wave," 1798, from earlier meaning "stretch of shallow, rippling water" (1755), from ripple (v.). The meaning "light ruffling of the surface suggestive of a ripple" is from 1843.

The meaning "ice cream streaked with colored syrup" is attested by 1939, so called from its appearance. In reference to the ripple-rings in water from a cast stone, by 1884. (Chaucer, late 14c., used roundel "a little circle" for that.) As the name of a brand of inexpensive wine sold by E&J Gallo Winery, from 1960 to 1984. In geology, ripple-mark "wavy surface on sand formed by wind or water" is by 1833. Ripple effect "continuous spreading results of an event or action" is from 1950.

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ceramic (adj.)

1850, keramic, "of or belonging to pottery," from Greek keramikos, from keramos "potter's earth; tile; earthen vessel, jar, wine-jar, pottery," which perhaps from a pre-Hellenic word.

Watkins suggests a connection with Latin cremare "to burn," but Klein's sources are firmly against this. Beekes writes "No certain etymology," finds connection with kerasai "to mix" to be "formally unproblematic, but semantically not very convincing," and regards the proposed connection to verbs for "to burn, glow" "better from the semantic side." He concludes, "this technical term for tile-making may well be Pre-Greek (or Anatolian)."

The spelling has been influenced by French céramique (1806). Related: ceramist "person devoted to ceramic art" (1855). Ceramics "art of making things from clay molded and baked" is attested from 1857.

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cottabus (n.)
a Sicilian game ... much in vogue at the drinking parties of young men at Athens. The simplest mode was when each threw the wine left in his cup, so as to strike smartly in a metal basin, at the same time invoking his mistress' name; if the whole fell with a distinct sound into the basin, it was a sign he stood well with her .... The game soon became complicated and was played in various ways. [Liddell and Scott, "Greek-English Lexicon," 1901]

Beeks writes that kottabos "indicated not only the game itself, but also several objects and movements used in it," so, "[a]s the original meaning of [kottabos] is unknown, all etymologies are necessarily uncertain."

There also was a denominative verb, kottabizein, "to play kottabos," also euphemistic for "to vomit."

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crater (n.)

1610s, "bowl-shaped mouth of a volcano," from a specialized use of Latin crater, from Greek krater "large bowl from which red wine mixed with water was served to guests," from kera- "to mix," from PIE root *kere- "to mix, confuse; cook" (see rare (adj.2)).

The extension to volcanoes began in Latin. The literal classical sense is attested in English from 1730. Applied to asteroid scars on the moon since 1831 (they originally were thought to be volcanic) and later extended to other planets. Meaning "cavity formed by the explosion of a military mine" is from 1839. The Battle of the Crater in the U.S. Civil War was July 30, 1864.

As a verb, "having a crater or craters," by 1848 in poetry, 1872 in scientific writing. Related: Cratered; cratering.

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puncheon (n.1)

"barrel or cask for soap or liquor; iron vessel," according to Century Dictionary ranging from 72 to 120 gallons, c. 1400, from Old French ponchon, ponson "wine vessel" (13c.), of unknown origin.

Formally identical with puncheon (n.2) "pointed tool for punching or piercing," "but connexion of sense has not been found" [OED] and the best guess at it seems to be from the stamp or imprint impressed on the barrel via a puncheon. Uncertain connection with another puncheon "short slab of timber, strut, vertical wooden beam used as a support in building" (mid-14c., from Old French ponson, ponchon), which Middle English Compendium regards as identical. Punch (n.2) in the drink sense is too late to be the source of the "cask" sense.

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symposium (n.)

1580s, "account of a gathering or party," from Latin symposium "drinking party, symposium," from Greek symposion "drinking party, convivial gathering of the educated" (related to sympotes "drinking companion"), from assimilated form of syn- "together" (see syn-) + posis "a drinking," from a stem of Aeolic ponen "to drink," from PIE root *po(i)- "to drink."

The symposium usually followed a dinner, for the Greeks did not drink at meals. Its enjoyment was heightened by intellectual or agreeable conversation, by the introduction of music or dancers, and by other amusements. [Century Dictionary]

The sense of "a meeting on some subject" is from 1784. Reflecting the Greek fondness for mixing wine and intellectual discussion, the modern sense is especially from the word being used as a title for one of Plato's dialogues. Greek plural is symposia, and the leader of one is a symposiarch (c. 1600 in English). Related: Symposiac (adj.); symposial.

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Coca-Cola 

invented 1886 in Atlanta, Georgia, U.S., by druggist Dr. John S. Pemberton. So called because original ingredients were derived from coca leaves and cola nuts. It contained minute amounts of cocaine until 1909.

Drink the brain tonic and intellectual soda fountain beverage Coca-Cola. [Atlanta Evening Journal, June 30, 1887]

Coca-colanization, also Coca-colonization was coined 1950 during an attempt to ban the beverage in France, led by the communist party and the wine-growers.

France's Communist press bristled with warnings against US "Coca-Colonization." Coke salesmen were described as agents of the OSS and the U.S. State Department. "Tremble," roared Vienna's Communist Der Abend, "Coca-Cola is on the march!" [Time magazine, March 13, 1950]

Coca-colonialism attested by 1956.

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accident (n.)

late 14c., "an occurrence, incident, event; what comes by chance," from Old French accident (12c.), from Latin accidentem (nominative accidens) "an occurrence; chance; misfortune," noun use of present participle of accidere "happen, fall out, fall upon," from ad "to" (see ad-) + combining form of cadere "to fall" (from PIE root *kad- "to fall").

The sense has had a tendency since Latin to extend from "something that happens, an event" to "a mishap, an undesirable event." Latin si quid cui accidat, "if anything should happen to one," was a euphemism for "if one should die." In Middle English the word is met usually in theology (in reference to the material qualities in the sacramental bread and wine), medicine ("something out of the ordinary, disease, injury"), or philosophy ("non-essential characteristic of a thing").

From late 15c. as "the operations of chance." Meaning "an unplanned child" is attested by 1932. Accident-prone is from 1926.

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