Etymology
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salience (n.)

1836, "quality of leaping;" 1849, "quality of standing out, state of projecting or being projected;" see salient (adj.) + -ence. The psychological sense of "quality of being more prominent in the mind or memory" is by 1938.

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saliency (n.)

1660s, "leaping, jumping;" see salient (adj.) + abstract noun suffix -cy. From 1834 as "fact or condition of standing out."

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salient (n.)

"a salient angle or part, a projection," especially as part of a military work, 1828, from salient (adj.).

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salient (adj.)

1560s, "leaping," a heraldic term, from Latin salientem (nominative saliens), present participle of salire "to leap," from a PIE root of uncertain form (source also of Sanskrit sisarsi, sisrate "to flow, run, hurry;"Greek hallesthai "to leap," Middle Irish saltraim "I trample," Middle Welsh sathar "trampling").

The meaning "pointing outward" (preserved in military usage) is from 1680s; that of "prominent, striking" first recorded 1840, from salient point (1670s), which refers to the heart of an embryo, which seems to leap, and translates Latin punctum saliens, going back to Aristotle's writings. Hence, the "starting point" of anything.

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salination (n.)

"act of washing or soaking with a salt liquid," 1705; see saline (adj.) -ation, ending indicating a noun of action.

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saline (adj.)

c. 1500, "made of salt" (a sense now obsolete), probably from Latin salinum "salt cellar" or salinae "salt pits," from sal (genitive salis) "salt" (from PIE root *sal- "salt"). The meaning "of, pertaining to, or characteristic of salt" is by 1771.

Saline solution is attested from 1833. Also in Middle English as a noun meaning "salt pit" (13c.), "a salt spring" (mid-15c.). As a shortening of saline solution, by 1926.

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salinity (n.)

"salty character or quality," 1650s; see saline + -ity.

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Salisbury (n.)

place in Wiltshire, Middle English Salesbury, Old English Searobyrg, Searesbyrig, Roman Sorbiodoni, Sorvioduni. The first element is a British Celtic word of uncertain sense; the second is *dunon "a hill, fort" or else Gaulish *duro- "fort, walled town." The first element was altered in Old English by folk etymology and the second replaced by its native translation, burh.

Salisbury steak (1885) is named for J.H. Salisbury (1823-1905), U.S. physician and food specialist, who promoted it. 

In the Philadelphia Medical Reporter for January 10th, Dr. Hepburn describes the way in which the steak is prepared in the "Salisbury" treatment, which has acquired a great reputation in America for disordered digestion, and widely different diseases of a chronic kind, few drugs being employed simultaneously, and those chiefly of a tonic kind. The best slices of a round of beef are chopped off with dull knives, the object being rather to pound than to cut the meat. [from a report reprinted in several U.S. and British medical journals in 1885 that goes on to describe the method; this version from Homeopathic World, Aug. 1, 1885]

Incorrect use for "hamburger" generally traces to World War I and the deliberate attempt to purify American English of German loan words. 

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Salish (n.)

self-designation of the Native American people of Montana also known as Flathead, from a term containing -ish "people." The language group that includes their tongue has been called Salishan (1886).

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saliva (n.)

"spittle, the secretions of the salivary glands of the mouth," early 15c. (Chauliac), salive, from Old French salive and directly from Latin saliva "spittle" (from Proto-Italic *sal-iwo- "dirty yellow," from PIE root *sal- (2) "dirty; gray; "see sallow (adj.)). Related: Salival.

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