Etymology
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bushel (n.)

early 14c., busshel, measure of capacity containing four pecks or eight gallons, from Old French boissel "bushel" (13c., Modern French boisseau), probably from boisse, a grain measure based on Gallo-Roman *bostia "handful," from Gaulish *bosta "palm of the hand" (compare Irish bass, Breton boz "the hollow of the hand").

The exact measure varied from place to place and according to commodity, and though in 19c. in Britain it acquired a precise legal definition, it varied in U.S. from state to state. It has been used since late 14c. loosely to mean "a large quantity or number." Attested from late 14c. as "a bushel basket." To hide (one's) light under a bushel is from Matthew v.15.

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loot (n.)

"goods taken from an enemy, etc.," 1802 (in Charles James's "Military Dictionary," London, which defines it as "Indian term for plunder or pillage"), Anglo-Indian, from Hindi lut, from Sanskrit loptram, lotram "booty, stolen property," from PIE *roup-tro-, from root *reup- "to snatch" (see rip (v.)).

LOOTICS, Ind. A term in India to express a body of irregular horsemen, who plunder and lay waste the country, and harrass the enemy in their march. They may be compared to the Hulans of Europe and other free-booters.
LOOTY WALLOW, Ind. A term of the same import as Lootics.
[James, "Military Dictionary"]
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consume (v.)

late 14c., "to destroy by separating into parts which cannot be reunited, as by burning or eating," hence "destroy the substance of, annihilate," from Old French consumer "to consume" (12c.) and directly from Latin consumere "to use up, eat, waste," from assimilated form of com-, here perhaps an intensive prefix (see com-), + sumere "to take," from sub- "under" (see sub-) + emere "to buy, take" (from PIE root *em- "to take, distribute").

Specifically, "to destroy by use, wear out by applying to its natural or intended use" from c. 1400. Sense of "to engage the full attention and energy of" is from 1570s.

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market (n.)

early 12c., "a meeting at a fixed time for buying and selling livestock and provisions, an occasion on which goods are publicly exposed for sale and buyers assemble to purchase," from Old North French market "marketplace, trade, commerce" (Old French marchiet, Modern French marché), from Latin mercatus "trading, buying and selling; trade; market" (source of Italian mercato, Spanish mercado, Dutch markt, German Markt), from past participle of mercari "to trade, deal in, buy," from merx (genitive mercis) "wares, merchandise." This is from an Italic root *merk-, possibly from Etruscan, referring to various aspects of economics.

The god Mercurius was probably the god of exchange. According to [Walde-Hoffmann], the god's name was borrowed from Etruscan; in principle, the same is possible for the stem *merk- altogether. [de Vaan]

Meaning "public building or space where markets are held" is attested from late 13c. Meaning "a city, country or region considered as a place where things are bought or sold" is from 1610s. Sense of "sale as controlled by supply and demand" is from 1680s. Market-garden "plot of land on which vegetables are grown for market" is by 1789. Market-basket "large basket used to carry marketing" is by 1798. Market price "price a commodity will bring when sold in open market" is from mid-15c.; market value "value established or shown by sales" (1690s) is first attested in the writings of John Locke. Market economy is from 1948; market research is from 1921.

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amaranth (n.)

1610s, from French amarante, from Latin amarantus/amaranthus, from Greek amarantos, name of a mythical unfading flower, literally "unfading, undecaying," from a- "not" (see a- (3)) + stem of marainein "die away, waste away, decay, wither; quench, extinguish," from PIE root *mer- "to rub away, harm" (also "to die" and forming words referring to death and to beings subject to death).

In classical use, a poet's word for an imaginary flower that never fades. It was applied in botany to a genus of ornamental plants 1550s. The ending has been influenced by plant names from unrelated Greek -anthos "flower."

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hurdle (n.)

Old English hyrdel "frame of intertwined twigs used as a temporary barrier," diminutive of hyrd "door," from Proto-Germanic *hurdiz "wickerwork frame, hurdle" (source also of Old Saxon hurth "plaiting, netting," Dutch horde "wickerwork," German Hürde "hurdle, fold, pen;" Old Norse hurð, Gothic haurds "door"), from PIE *krtis (source also of Latin cratis "hurdle, wickerwork," Greek kartalos "a kind of basket," kyrtos "fishing creel"), from root *kert- "to weave, twist together" (source also of Sanskrit krt "to spin").

Used as temporary fencing in agriculture. Sense of "barrier to jump in a race" is by 1822 (hurdle-race also is from 1822); hurdles as a type of race (originally horse race) with hurdles as obstacles is attested by 1836. Figurative sense of "obstacle" is 1924.

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attrition (n.)

early 15c., attricioun, "a breaking;" 1540s, "abrasion, scraping, the rubbing of one thing against another," from Latin attritionem (nominative attritio), literally "a rubbing against," noun of action from past-participle stem of atterere "to wear, rub away," figuratively "to destroy, waste," from assimilated form of ad "to" (see ad-) + terere "to rub" (from PIE root *tere- (1) "to rub, turn").

The earliest sense in English is from Scholastic theology (late 14c.): "sorrow for sin merely out of fear of punishment or a sense of shame," an imperfect condition, less than contrition or repentance. The sense of "wearing down of military strength" is from World War I (1914). Figurative use of that is by 1930.

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fan (n.1)

device to make an air current, Old English fann (West Saxon) "a basket or shovel for winnowing grain" (by tossing it in the air), from Latin vannus, perhaps related to ventus "wind" (see wind (n.1)), or from PIE root *wet- (1) "to blow" (also "to inspire, spiritually arouse;" see wood (adj.)). Old English did not have a letter -v-, hence the change in the initial consonant.

The chaff, being lighter, would blow off. Sense of "device for moving air" first recorded late 14c.; the hand-held version is first attested 1550s. A fan-light (1819) was shaped like a lady's fan. The automobile's fan-belt is from 1909. Fan-dance is from 1872 in a Japanese context; by 1937 as a type of burlesque performance.

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bulimia (n.)

"emotional disorder consisting of food-gorging alternating with purging or fasting, accompanied by morbid concern with body weight and shape," 1976, Modern Latin, from Greek boulimia, "ravenous hunger" as a disease, literally "ox-hunger," from bou-, intensive prefix (originally from bous "ox;" from PIE root *gwou- "ox, bull, cow") + limos "hunger," from PIE *leie- "to waste away."

As a psychological disorder, technically bulemia nervosa. Englished form boulimy, bulimy was used from late 14c. in a medical sense of "morbidly ravishing hunger, disease causing the patient to have an insatiable hunger for food."

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hermit (n.)

early 12c., "religious recluse, one who dwells apart in a solitary place for religious meditation," from Old French hermit, ermit "hermit, recluse," from Late Latin eremita, from Greek eremites, literally "person of the desert," from eremia "a solitude, an uninhabited region, a waste," from erēmos "uninhabited, empty, desolate, bereft," from PIE *erem- "to rest, be quiet" (source also of Sanskrit ramate "to rest;" Lithuanian rimti "to be quiet," Gothic rimis "rest," Old Irish fo-rimim "to set, lay"). The unetymological h- first appeared in Medieval Latin heremite.

Transferred sense of "person living in solitude" is from 1799. Related: Hermitic; hermitical. The hermit crab (1735) is said to be so called for its seeking out and dwelling in a solitary cell.

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