Etymology
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dissemble (v.)

early 15c., dissemblen, "assume a false seeming; conceal real facts, motives, intentions, etc.; mask the truth about oneself," from Old French dessembler, from Latin dissimulare "make unlike, conceal, disguise," from dis- "completely" (see dis-) + simulare "to make like, imitate, copy, represent," from stem of similis "like, resembling, of the same kind" (see similar). Related: Dissembled; dissembling.

Form altered apparently by influence of resemble, Old French resembler. Earlier was Middle English dissimule, from Old French dissimuler. Transitive meaning "make unlike, disguise" is from c. 1500; that of "give a false impression of" is from 1510s.

To dissemble is to pretend that a thing which is is not: as, to dissemble one's real sentiments. To simulate is to pretend that a thing which is not is: as, to simulate friendship. To dissimulate is to hide the reality or truth of something under a diverse contrary appearance: as, to dissimulate one's poverty by ostentation. To disguise is to put under a false guise, to keep a thing from being recognized by giving it a false appearance: as I cannot disguise from myself the fact. [Century Dictionary]
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*kwo- 
also *kwi-, Proto-Indo-European root, stem of relative and interrogative pronouns.

It forms all or part of: cheese (n.2) "a big thing;" cue (n.1) "stage direction;" either; hidalgo; how; kickshaw; neither; neuter; qua; quality; quandary; quantity; quasar; quasi; quasi-; query; quib; quibble; quiddity; quidnunc; quip; quodlibet; quondam; quorum; quote; quotidian; quotient; ubi; ubiquity; what; when; whence; where; whether; which; whither; who; whoever; whom; whose; why.

It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit kah "who, which;" Avestan ko, Hittite kuish "who;" Latin quis/quid "in what respect, to what extent; how, why," qua "where, which way," qui/quae/quod "who, which;" Lithuanian kas "who;" Old Church Slavonic kuto, Russian kto "who;" Old Irish ce, Welsh pwy "who;" Old English hwa, hwæt, hwær, etc.
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quality (n.)

c. 1300, qualite, "temperament, character, disposition," from Old French calite, qualite "quality, nature, characteristic" (12c., Modern French qualité), from Latin qualitatem (nominative qualitas) "a quality, property; nature, state, condition" (said [Tucker, etc.] to have been coined by Cicero to translate Greek poiotēs), from qualis "what kind of a" (from PIE root *kwo-, stem of relative and interrogative pronouns).

In early use, and for long thereafter, with awareness of the word's use in Aristotelian philosophy. From late 14c. as "an inherent attribute," also "degree of goodness or excellence." Meaning "social rank, position" is c. 1400, hence "nobility, gentry." From 1580s as "a distinguished and characteristic excellence." 

Noun phrase quality time "time spent giving undivided attention to another person to build a relationship" is recorded by 1977. Quality of life "degree to which a person is healthy and able to participate in or enjoy life events" is from 1943. Quality control "maintenance of desired quality in a manufactured product" is attested from 1935.

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dependant (n.)

early 15c., originally in law, "action growing out of another action," from the adjective (see dependent) or from noun use of the adjective in French. It is attested from 1580s as "one who depends on or looks to another for support or favor."

As with its relative, dependence, it co-existed with the Latin-influenced variant (in this case dependent, from Latin dependere) through 18c., but with this word the French spelling (dpendant for both adjective and noun) has proven more durable in English, possibly because it has been found convenient to keep both, one (dependant) for the noun, the other (dependent) for the adjective.

But Century Dictionary (1897) places all senses under dependent, and writes:

As the spelling of this class of words depends solely upon whether they happen to be regarded as derived directly from the French or directly from the Latin, and as usage is divided, there is no good reason for insisting upon a distinction in spelling between the noun and the adjective .... 
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cottage (n.)

late 14c., "a cot, a humble habitation," as of a farm-laborer, from Old French cote "hut, cottage" + Anglo-French suffix -age (according to OED the whole probably denotes "the entire property attached to a cote"). Old French cot is probably from Old Norse kot "hut," cognate of Old English cot, cote "cottage, hut," from Proto-Germanic *kutan (source also of Middle Dutch cot, Dutch kot).

Meaning "small country residence or detached suburban house" (without suggestion of poverty or tenancy) is from 1765. Modern French cottage is a 19c. reborrowing from English. Cottage industry, one that can be done at home, is attested from 1854. Cottage cheese, the U.S. name for a kind of soft, white cheese, is attested from 1831, earliest in reference to Philadelphia:

There was a plate of rye-bread, and a plate of wheat, and a basket of crackers; another plate with half a dozen paltry cakes that looked as if they had been bought under the old Court House; some morsels of dried beef on two little tea-cup plates: and a small glass dish of that preparation of curds, which in vulgar language is called smear-case, but whose nom de guerre is cottage-cheese, at least that was the appellation given it by our hostess. ["Miss Leslie," "Country Lodgings," Godey's Lady's Book, July 1831]
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caliber (n.)

"inside diameter of a gun barrel," 1580s, from French calibre (by mid-16c., perhaps late 15c.), often said to be ultimately from Arabic qalib "a mold for casting." Barnhart remarks that Spanish calibre, Italian calibro "appear too late to act as intermediate forms" between the Arabic word and the French.

But English Words of Arabic Ancestry finds that the idea of an Arabic source "comes with no evidence and no background historical context to support it. It is far more likely that the word was formed in French" from Medieval Latin qua libra "of what weight" (a theory first published 19c. by Mahn), from fem. ablative of quis (from PIE root *kwo-, stem of relative and interrogative pronouns) + ablative of libra "balance" (see Libra).

In U.S., expressed in decimal parts of an inch (.44-caliber = ".44-inch caliber"). The earliest sense in English is a figurative one, "degree of merit or importance" (1560s), from French. Later, figuratively, "the capacity of one's mind, one's intellectual endowments."

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cochineal (n.)

"brilliant crimson dyestuff consisting of the dried bodies of a species of insect," 1580s, from French cochenille (16c.), probably from Spanish cochinilla, from a diminutive of Latin coccinus (adj.) "scarlet-colored," from coccum "berry (actually an insect) yielding scarlet dye" (see kermes). But some sources identify the Spanish source word as cochinilla "wood louse" (a diminutive form related to French cochon "pig").

The insect (Coccus Cacti) was so called from 1590s. It lives on the prickly pear cactus in Mexico and Central America and is a relative of the kermes and has similar, but more intense, dying qualities. Aztecs and other Mexican Indians used it as a dyestuff. It first is mentioned in Europe in 1523 in Spanish correspondence to Hernán Cortés in Mexico. Specimens were brought to Spain in the 1520s, and cloth merchants in Antwerp were buying cochineal in insect and powdered form in Spain by the 1540s. It soon superseded the use of kermes as a tinctorial substance. Other species of coccus are useless for dye and considered mere pests, such as the common mealy bug.

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court (n.)
Origin and meaning of court

late 12c., "formal assembly held by a sovereign," from Old French cort "king's court; princely residence" (11c., Modern French cour), from Latin cortem, accusative of cors (earlier cohors) "enclosed yard," and by extension (and perhaps by association with curia "sovereign's assembly"), "those assembled in the yard; company, cohort," from assimilated form of com "with, together" (see com-) + stem hort- related to hortus "garden, plot of ground" (from PIE root *gher- (1) "to grasp, enclose").

Both senses of the Latin word emerged in English. From the purely physical sense come "palace, residence of a sovereign" (c. 1200), "enclosed space connected with a building or buildings" (early 14c.), and the sporting sense "smooth, level plot of ground on which a ball game is played" (1510s, originally of tennis). Also "short arm of a public street, enclosed on three sides by buildings" (1680s), formerly noted for poverty or as business districts.

From the notion of "surroundings of a sovereign in his regal state" (c. 1200) comes the legal meaning "a tribunal for judicial investigation" (c. 1300, early assemblies for justice were overseen by the sovereign personally), also "hall or chamber where justice is administered" (c. 1300). As an adjective, "pertaining to a court," late 13c.

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scheme (n.)

1550s, "figure of speech" (a sense now obsolete), from Medieval Latin schema "a shape, a figure, a form, appearance; figure of speech; posture in dancing," from Greek skhēma (genitive skhematos) "figure, appearance, the nature of a thing," which is related to skhein "to get," and ekhein "to have, hold; be in a given state or condition" (from PIE root *segh- "to hold").

By 1610s as "linear representation showing relative positions pf the parts or elements of a system" (especially in astrology). The sense "program of action" is by 1640s, also "outline, draft of a book, etc."

The meaning "plan of action devised to attain some end" is by 1718, and unfavorable overtones (selfishness, deviousness) began to creep in to the word after that time. Meaning "complex unity of coordinated component elements, a connected and orderly arrangement" is from 1736. In prosody by 1838. Color scheme is by 1890 (in Milton Bradley Co.'s "Color in the School-Room"); earlier scheme of colour (by 1877).

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pitch (n.1)

1520s, "something that is thrust in or fixed or pierced," from pitch (v.1). Sense of "slope, degree, inclination" is from 1540s; from 1550s as "highest point or reach;" from 1620s as "height" in general. Meaning "height of an arched roof above the floor" is by 1610s.

Meaning "a throw, a toss, an act of throwing" is attested by 1833. Meaning "act of plunging headfirst" is from 1762. The musical sense of "characteristic of a sound or tone that depends upon relative rapidity of vibration" is from 1590s, also "particular tonal standard." See pitch (v.1) for sense evolutions, but the connection of many of these is obscure.

Some noun senses are from the older sense of pitch as "to thrust in, drive (a stake)." Thus, in cricket, "place where the wickets are pitched" (1871).

Sales pitch in the modern commercial advertising sense is from 1943, American English; pitch in the sense of "tedious or inflated sales talk" is attested by 1876, perhaps ultimately from the baseball sense. Pitch also was "place on which to pitch or set up a booth for sale or exhibition" (by 1851).

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