Etymology
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illumine (v.)
late 14c., "to enlighten spiritually;" mid-15c., "to light up, shine light on," from Old French illuminer (13c.), from Latin illuminare "make bright, light up" (see illumination). Related: illumined.
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kilt (v.)
"to tuck up," mid-14c., surviving in Scottish, a word of Scandinavian origin (compare Danish kilte "to truss, to tuck up," Swedish kilta "swaddle"); see kilt (n.). Related: Kilted; kilting.
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surge (n.)

late 15c., "fountain, stream," of uncertain origin, probably from French sourge-, stem of sourdre "to rise, swell," from Latin surgere "to rise, arise, get up, mount up, ascend; attack," contraction of surrigere, from assimilated form of sub "up from below" (see sub-) + regere "to keep straight, guide" (from PIE root *reg- "move in a straight line," with derivatives meaning "to direct in a straight line," thus "to lead, rule"). Meaning "high, rolling swell of water" is from 1520s; figurative sense of "excited rising up" (as of feelings) is from 1510s.

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uprise (v.)
c. 1300, "stand up; get out of bed; ascend to a higher level," from up (adv.) + rise (v.). Similar formation in West Frisian oprize, Middle Dutch oprisen, Dutch oprijzen.
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bolster (v.)
mid-15c. (implied in bolstered), "prop up; make to bulge" (originally of a woman's breasts), from bolster (n.). Figurative sense is from c. 1500, on the notion of "to support with a bolster, prop up." Related: Bolstering.
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Aufklarung (n.)
"the Enlightenment," 1801, from German Aufklärung (18c.), literally "enlightenment," from aufklären "to enlighten" (17c.), from auf "up" (from PIE root *upo "under," also "up from under") + klären "to clear," from Latin clarus (see clear (adj.)).
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extirpate (v.)
"root up, root out," 1530s, usually figurative, from Latin extirpatus/exstirpatus, past participle of extirpare/exstirpare "root out, eradicate, pull up by the roots" (see extirpation). Related: Extirpated; extirpating; extirpable.
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sustain (v.)

late 13c., sustenen, transitive, "provide the necessities of life to;" by early 14c. as "give support to; support physically, hold up or upright; give assistance to; keep (a quarrel, etc.) going," from the stem of Old French sostenir, sustenir "hold up, bear; suffer, endure" (13c.), from Latin sustinere "hold up, hold upright; furnish with means of support; bear, undergo, endure." This is from an assimilated form of sub "up from below" (see sub-) + tenere "to hold" (from PIE root *ten- "to stretch").

The meaning "continue, keep up" (an action, etc.) is from early 14c. The sense of "endure (pain hardship, a shock) without failing or yielding" is from c. 1400. The legal sense of "admit as correct and valid" is from early 15c. Past-participle adjective sustained is by 1775 as "kept up or maintained uniformly," originally of music notes; the piano's sustaining pedal is so called by 1889.

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absorption (n.)
Origin and meaning of absorption

1590s, "a swallowing up" (now obsolete), from Latin absorptionem (nominative absorptio) "a swallowing," noun of action from past-participle stem of absorbere "swallow up" (see absorb). From 1714 specifically of "disappearance by assimilation into something else."

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