Etymology
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Calcutta 

city in eastern India, former capital of British India, named for Hindu goddess Kali. In modern use often de-Englished as Kolkata.

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caldera (n.)

"cavity on the summit of a volcano," 1865, from Spanish caldera, literally "cauldron, kettle," from Latin caldarium "hot-bath" (plural caldaria), from caldarius "pertaining to warming," from calidus "warm, hot" (from PIE root *kele- (1) "warm"). A doublet of cauldron.

The term was originally used in describing volcanic regions occurring where Spanish is the current language, and was introduced by Von Buch in his description of the Canaries. [Century Dictionary]
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caldron (n.)

spelling of cauldron preferred by other dictionary editors.

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Caleb 

masc. proper name, in the Bible, one of the 12 men sent by Moses to reconnoiter Canaan, from Hebrew Kalebh, literally "dog-like," from kelebh "dog."

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Caledonia 

ancient Roman name for part of northern Britain, taken from the name of its former inhabitants, which is of unknown origin, presumably Celtic. Since 18c. it has been applied poetically to Scotland or the Scottish Highlands. Related: Caledonian.

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calendar (n.)

c. 1200, calender, "the year as divided systematically into days and months;" mid-14c. as "table showing divisions of the year;" from Old French calendier "list, register," from Latin calendarium "account book," from calendae/kalendae "the calends" the first day of the Roman month, when debts fell due and accounts were reckoned.

This is from calare "to announce solemnly, call out," as the priests did in proclaiming the new moon that marked the calends, from PIE root *kele- (2) "to shout." In Rome, new moons were not calculated mathematically but rather observed by the priests from the Capitol; when they saw it, they would "declare" the number of days till the nones (five or seven, depending on the month). The word was taken by the early Church for its register list of saints and their feast days. The meaning "list of documents arranged chronologically" is from late 15c.

The -ar spelling in English is from 17c., to differentiate it from the now-obscure calender "cloth-presser." Related: Calendarial; calendary.

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calender (n.)

"machine consisting of close-set revolving cylinders or rolls which smooths and presses paper, cloth, etc.," 1510s (late 13c. in calenderer, surname of persons who use such a machine), from Old French calandreur, from Medieval Latin calendra "cloth-pressing machine," so called from the shape of the machine used, from Latin cylindrus, from Greek kylindros "roll, cylinder" (see cylinder).

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calender (v.)

"to pass through a calender," a machine which smooths and presses paper, cloth, etc., 1510s, from French calandre, the machine name, from Medieval Latin calendra (see calender (n.)).

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calends (n.)

c. 1200, "a day as reckoned back from the first of the following month" (as fourteenth calend of March = February 16th), from Latin kalendae "first day of the month" in the Roman calendar (see calendar). It is attested in English from mid-14c. as "the first day of the month," and from late 14c. as the beginning of anything.

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calf (n.2)

"thick, fleshy part of the back of the lower human leg," early 14c., from Old Norse kalfi, a word of unknown origin; possibly from the same Germanic root as calf (n.1). It is relatively larger in man than in other mammals for the support of the body standing upright. Of garments, calf-length is from 1956.

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