ripple (n.)

"very small wave," 1798, from earlier meaning "stretch of shallow, rippling water" (1755), from ripple (v.). The meaning "light ruffling of the surface suggestive of a ripple" is from 1843.

The meaning "ice cream streaked with colored syrup" is attested by 1939, so called from its appearance. In reference to the ripple-rings in water from a cast stone, by 1884. (Chaucer, late 14c., used roundel "a little circle" for that.) As the name of a brand of inexpensive wine sold by E&J Gallo Winery, from 1960 to 1984. In geology, ripple-mark "wavy surface on sand formed by wind or water" is by 1833. Ripple effect "continuous spreading results of an event or action" is from 1950.

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skull (n.)

"cranium, the bony framework of the head," c. 1200, sculle, probably from Old Norse skalli "a bald head, skull," a general Scandinavian word (compare Swedish skulle, Norwegian skult), itself probably related to Old English scealu "husk" (see shell (n.)).

But early prominence in southwestern texts suggests rather origin from a Dutch or Low German cognate (such as Dutch schol "turf, piece of ice," but the sense of "head bone framework" is wanting). Derivation from Old French escuelle "bowl" seems unlikely on grounds of sound and sense. An Old English word for skull was heafod-bolla. Latin cranium also is glossed at least once in Middle English as braynpanne.

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air-conditioner (n.)

from air (n.1) + conditioner. Along with air-conditioning first attested 1909, originally in reference to an industrial process in textile manufacturing. The word conditioning was applied to the determination of the moisture content of textiles, control of which was essential to spin fine cotton yarns. The original purpose of air-conditioning was to purify air and regulate moisture.

In 1906 Stuart W. Cramer of Charlotte, N.C., and Willis H. Carrier of Buffalo, N.Y., independently devised methods of using a fine spray of water to cool air. Self-contained air-conditioning units, complete with refrigeration equipment, were widely used to cool air in U.S. stores, restaurants, etc. from the 1930s. An earlier name for such a device (using ice and fans) was air cooler (1875).

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prurient (adj.)

1630s, "itching," later, and now exclusively, "having an itching desire for something" (1650s), especially "lascivious, inclined to lewd thoughts," (1746), from Latin prurientem (nominative pruriens), present participle of prurire "to itch; to long for, be wanton," which is perhaps related to pruna "glowing coals" (from PIE root *preus- "to freeze; to burn;" see freeze (v.)).

De Vaan suggests a source in PIE *preus-i-, *prus-no-"(cold and) wet; itching," source also of Welsh rhew, Breton rev, reo "frost," Sanskrit prushnuvanti "to (be)sprinkle, wet," and writes that "The meaning 'to be wet, itch' was metaphorically also applied to high temperatures, hence 'burning' in pruna." But it needn't be metaphorical: Cold damage to skin is called ice burn and the paradoxical sensation of burning when the skin contacts an extreme cold surface has long been noted. Related: Pruriently.

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pack (n.)

early 13c., pak, pake, "a bundle or package (of cloth, merchandise, etc.)," also "a bag or purse for carrying things," probably from a Low German word (compare Middle Dutch pac, pack "bundle," Middle Low German pak, Middle Flemish pac, attested from late 12c.) and taken into English from the wool traders in Flanders; or possibly from Old Norse pakki. All are of unknown origin. Italian pacco is a Dutch loan word; French pacque probably is from Flemish.

Especially a bundle enclosed in a wrapping and bound fast with cords. Meaning "set of persons" (usually of a low character) is from late 14c. and is older than sense of "group of instinctively herding hunting animals" (mid-15c.). Extended to "complete set of playing cards" (1590s), floating ice (1791), bundled cigarettes (1865), and submarines (1943).

Meaning "knapsack on a frame" is attested from 1916. Pack of lies is attested from 1763. Meaning "a person of low character" (usually with naughty) is by 1520s.

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patten (n.)

late 14c., patin, "a wooden shoe or clog," later especially a thick-soled shoe worn by women to make them seem taller, from Old French patin "clog, type of shoe" (13c.), probably from pate "paw, foot," from Gallo-Roman *pauta, ultimately perhaps imitative of the sound made by a paw. The immediate source has been sought in Celtic [Barnhart] and Germanic [OED], but evidence is wanting. Likely cognates include Provençal pauta, Catalan pote, Middle Dutch and Dutch poot, German Pfote "paw." Also "an ice-skate" (1610s).

From the beginning of the eighteenth century, a peculiar device was used for the same purpose, formed of an iron ring with two or more uprights, supporting a wooden sole which was thus lifted several inches above the ground. This ringed patten has been used in England until a recent time, but has been little known in the United States. [Century Dictionary, 1895]
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enjoy (v.)

late 14c., "rejoice, be glad" (intransitive), from stem of Old French enjoir "to give joy, rejoice, take delight in," from en- "make" (see en- (1)) + joir "enjoy," from Latin gaudere "rejoice" (see joy); Sense of "have the use or benefit of" first recorded early 15c. (replacing Old English brucan, for which see brook (v.)).

Transitive meaning "take pleasure in" is mid-15c. In modern use it has a tendency to lose its connection with pleasure: newspaper photo captions say someone enjoys an ice cream cone, etc., when all she is doing is eating it, and Wright's "English Dialect Dictionary" (1900) reports widespread use in north and west England of the phrase to enjoy bad health for one who has ailments. Meaning "have sexual relations with" (a woman) is from 1590s. Related: Enjoyed; enjoys; enjoying. To enjoy oneself "feel pleasure or satisfaction in one's mind" attested by 1708.

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practice (n.)

early 15c., practise, "practical aspect or application," originally especially of medicine but also alchemy, education, etc.; from Old French pratiser, from Medieval Latin practicare (see practice (v.)). It largely displaced the older word, practic, which survived in parallel into 19c. From early 15c. it began to be assimilated in spelling to nouns in -ice.

Sense of "habit, frequent or customary performance" is from c. 1500. Meaning "exercise for instruction or discipline" is from 1520s. Sense of "action, the process of accomplishing or carrying out" (opposed to speculation or theory) is from 1530s. The meaning "regular pursuit of some employment or business" is from 1570s. In 16c.-17c. it also was used in an evil sense, "conspiracy, a scheme."

Practice is sometimes erroneously used for experience, which is a much broader word. Practice is the repetition of an act : as, to become a skilled marksman by practice. Experience is, by derivation, a going clear through, and may mean action, but much oftener views the person as acted upon, taught, disciplined, by what befalls him. [Century Dictionary]
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Eskimo (n.)

1580s, from Danish Eskimo or French Esquimaux (plural), both probably from an Algonquian word, such as Abenaki askimo (plural askimoak), Ojibwa ashkimeq, traditionally said to mean literally "eaters of raw meat," from Proto-Algonquian *ask- "raw" + *-imo "eat." Research from 1980s in linguistics of the region suggests this derivation, though widely credited there, might be inaccurate or incomplete, and the word might mean "snowshoe-netter," but there are phonological difficulties with this. See also Innuit.

Of language, from 1819. As an adjective by 1744. Eskimo pie "chocolate-coated ice cream bar" was introduced in 1922 and was at first a craze that drove up the price of cocoa beans on the New York market 50 percent in three months [F.L. Allen, "Only Yesterday," 1931].

It is said that the reason the "Eskimo Pie" campaign was not successful in Spanish-speaking countries is because in Spanish the word "pie" means "foot." South Americans do not care to eat Eskimos' feet. ["Pitfalls of Foreign Advertising," Business, December 1922] 
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dry (adj.)

Middle English drie "without moisture, comparatively free from water or fluid," from Old English dryge, from Proto-Germanic *draugiz (source also of Middle Low German dröge, Middle Dutch druge, Dutch droog, Old High German trucchon, German trocken, Old Norse draugr), from Germanic root *dreug- "dry."

Meaning "barren" is mid-14c. Of persons, "showing no emotion," c. 1200; of humor or jests, "without show of pleasantry, caustic, sarcastic" early 15c. (implied in dryly). Sense of "uninteresting, tedious" is from 1620s. Of wines, brandy, etc., "free from sweetness or fruity flavor," 1700. Of places prohibiting alcoholic drink, 1870 (dry feast, one at which no liquor is served, is from late 15c.); colloquial dry (n.) "prohibitionist" is by 1888, American English political slang.

Dry goods (1650s) were those dispensed in dry, not liquid, measure. Dry land (that not under the sea) is from early 13c. Dry-nurse "nurse who attends and feeds a child but does not suckle it" is from 1590s. Dry run "rehearsal" is by 1941. Dry ice "solid carbon dioxide" is by 1925.

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