Etymology
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whole (adj.)

Old English hal "entire, whole; unhurt, uninjured, safe; healthy, sound; genuine, straightforward," from Proto-Germanic *haila- "undamaged" (source also of Old Saxon hel, Old Norse heill, Old Frisian hal, Middle Dutch hiel, Dutch heel, Old High German, German heil "salvation, welfare"), from PIE *kailo- "whole, uninjured, of good omen" (source also of Old Church Slavonic celu "whole, complete;" see health).

The spelling with wh- developed early 15c. The sense in whole number is from early 14c. Whole milk is from 1782. On the whole "considering all facts or circumstances" is from 1690s. For phrase whole hog, see hog (n.).

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wassail 

mid-12c., from Old Norse ves heill "be healthy," a salutation, from ves, imperative of vesa "to be" (see was) + heill "healthy," from Proto-Germanic *haila- (see health). Use as a drinking phrase appears to have arisen among Danes in England and spread to native inhabitants.

A similar formation appears in Old English wes þu hal, but this is not recorded as a drinking salutation. Sense extended c. 1300 to "liquor in which healths were drunk," especially spiced ale used in Christmas Eve celebrations. Meaning "a carousal, reveling" first attested c. 1600. Wassailing "custom of going caroling house to house at Christmas time" is recorded from 1742.

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seaside (n.)

also sea-side, "the land bordering on the sea, the margin or brim of the sea," c. 1200, from sea + side (n.). Especially in England, "the seacoast as a resort for pleasure or health," 1782; as an adjective in this sense from 1781. The meaning "the side facing the sea" seems to be late (19c.) and rare.

Other Middle English "seaside, seashore" words included sees koste (mid-14c.), sewarth (Old English sæwaroþ, from wār "seashore, beach"), se-ground, se-brimme, sæ-strand, sea-half (Old English sæhealf), se-bank (mid-14c.). Old English used særima "sea-rim," sæ-strande, etc.

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dianetics (n.)

1950, coined by U.S. writer L. Ron Hubbard (1911-1986). In "Dianetics: The Modern Science of Mental Health" (1950), the glossary connects the word to Greek dianoua "thought." "Self Analysis" by Hubbard (1951) quotes an etymology said to have been added to the Funk & Wagnalls New Standard Dictionary: "Gr. dianoetikos--dia, through plus noos, mind."

There was an earlier dianoetic (1670s) "of or pertaining to thought," from Greek dianoetikos "of or for thinking; intellectual," from dianoetos, verbal adjective from dianoe-esthai "to think," from dia- "through" (see dia-) + noe-ein "to think, suppose," from noos "mind," which is of uncertain origin.

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waste (v.)

c. 1200, "devastate, ravage, ruin," from Anglo-French and Old North French waster "to waste, squander, spoil, ruin" (Old French gaster; Modern French gâter), altered (by influence of Frankish *wostjan) from Latin vastare "lay waste," from vastus "empty, desolate," from PIE *wasto-, extended suffixed form of root *eue- "to leave, abandon, give out." Related: wasted; wasting.

The Germanic word also existed in Old English as westan "to lay waste, ravage." Spanish gastar, Italian guastare also are from Germanic. Meaning "to lose strength or health; pine; weaken" is attested from c. 1300; the sense of "squander, spend or consume uselessly" is first recorded mid-14c.; meaning "to kill" is from 1964. Waste not, want not attested from 1778.

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clean-living (adj.)

"of upright character and healthful habits, mentally and morally healthy," 1874, from the noun phrase; see clean (adj.) + living (n.).

Clean Living is opposed to anything and everything which speaks for physical and mental disorder, dirt, disease, distress and discontent. Clean Living stands for babies, better born and better bred, better clothed and better fed; happier, healthier babies with normal play, normal environment and a normal chance to live and develop. Clean Living stands for youth, the critical time, the unfolding time, the time when muscle, mind, morals and manners of the boy and girl shall start right or wrong, for health and success or disease and failure. [Clean Living, vol. I, no. 1, April 1916, Chicago]
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tomato (n.)

1753, earlier tomate (c. 1600), from Spanish tomate (mid-16c.) from Nahuatl (Aztecan) tomatl "a tomato," said to mean literally "the swelling fruit," from tomana "to swell." Spelling probably influenced by potato (1565). Slang meaning "an attractive girl" is recorded from 1929, on notion of juicy plumpness.

A member of the nightshade family, all of which contain poisonous alkaloids. Introduced in Europe from the New World, by 1550 they regularly were consumed in Italy but grown only as ornamental plants in England and not eaten there or in the U.S. at first. An encyclopedia of 1753 describes it as "a fruit eaten either stewed or raw by the Spaniards and Italians and by the Jew families of England." Introduced in U.S. 1789 as part of a program by then-Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson, but not commonly eaten until after c. 1830.

The older English name for it, and the usual one before mid-18c., was love-apple.

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branks (n.)

"scolding-bridle," an iron-frame headpiece with a flat iron piece to be inserted in the mouth to still the tongue, formerly used in Scotland and later in parts of England "for correcting scolding women" [Century Dictionary], 1590s, of unknown origin. Perhaps from a North Sea Germanic language. Earlier as a verb, "to bridle, restrain" (1570s).

Paide for caring a woman throughe the towne for skoulding, with branks, 4d. ["Municipal Accounts of Newcastle," 1595]
Ungallant, and unmercifully severe, as this species of torture seems to be, Dr. Plot, in his History of Staffordshire, much prefers it to the cucking stool, which, he says, "not only endangers the health of the party, but also gives the tongue liberty 'twixt every dip." [John Trotter Brockett, "A Glossary of North Country Words," 1829]
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reduce (v.)

late 14c., reducen, "bring back" (to a place or state, a sense now obsolete), also "to diminish" (something), from Old French reducer (14c.), from Latin reducere "lead back, bring back," figuratively "restore, replace," from re- "back" (see re-) + ducere "bring, lead" (from PIE root *deuk- "to lead").

In Middle English largely with positive senses, including "bring back to virtue, restore to God; bring back to health." The specific meaning "bring to an inferior condition" is by 1570s; that of "bring to a lower rank" is by 1640s (military reduce to ranks is from 1802); that of "subdue by force of arms" is from 1610s. The sense of "to lower, diminish, lessen" is from 1787. Related: Reduced; reducing.

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celibacy (n.)

1660s, "state of being unmarried, voluntary abstention from marriage," formed in English from abstract noun suffix -cy + Latin caelibatus "state of being unmarried," from caelebs "unmarried," a word of uncertain origin. Perhaps it is from PIE *kaiwelo- "alone" + lib(h)s- "living." De Vaan suggests as an alternative PIE *kehi-lo- "whole," which would relate it to health (q.v.): "[I]f this developed to 'unboundness, celibacy', it may explain the meaning 'unmarried' of caelebs-."

Originally and through the 19c. celibacy was opposed to marriage, and celibacy, except as a religious vow, often was frowned upon as leading to (or being an excuse for) sexual indulgence and debauchery among bachelors. By 1950s it was being used sometimes in a sense of "voluntary abstinence from sexuality," without reference to marriage.

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