Roman god of the bright sky, also a poetical name of the planet Jupiter, late 14c., from Latin Iovis, from PIE root *dyeu- "to shine," in derivatives "sky, heaven, god" (compare Zeus). In classical Latin, the compound Iuppiter replaced Old Latin Iovis as the god's name (see Jupiter). Old English had it as Iob.
1670s, I gad, a softened oath, second element God, first uncertain; perhaps it represents exclamation ah.
masc. proper name, from Latin Marcus, Roman praenomen, traditionally said to be related to Mars, Roman god of war.
also Juppiter, c. 1200, "supreme deity of the ancient Romans," from Latin Iupeter, Iupiter, Iuppiter, "Jove, god of the sky and chief of the gods," from PIE *dyeu-peter- "god-father" (originally vocative, "the name naturally occurring most frequently in invocations" [Tucker]), from *deiw-os "god" (from root *dyeu- "to shine," in derivatives "sky, heaven, god") + peter "father" in the sense of "male head of a household" (see father (n.)).
The Latin forms Diespiter, Dispiter ... together with the word dies 'day' point to the generalization of a stem *dije-, whereas Iupiter, Iovis reflect [Proto-Italic] *djow~. These can be derived from a single PIE paradigm for '(god of the) sky, day-light', which phonetically split in two in [Proto-Italic] and yielded two new stems with semantic specialization. [de Vaan]
Compare Greek Zeu pater, vocative of Zeus pater "Father Zeus;" Sanskrit Dyaus pitar "heavenly father." As the name of the brightest of the superior planets from late 13c. in English, from Latin (Iovis stella). The Latin word also meant "heaven, sky, air," hence sub Iove "in the open air." As god of the sky he was considered to be the originator of weather, hence Jupiter Pluvius "Jupiter as dispenser of rain" 1704), in jocular use from mid-19c.
honorific title for an Iranian Shiite religious leader, 1950, from Persian, from Arabic ayatu-llah, literally "miraculous sign of God."
fem. proper name, from French Dorothée, from Latin Dorothea, from Greek, literally "gift of God," from dōron "gift" (from PIE root *do- "to give") + fem. of theos "god" (from PIE root *dhes-, forming words for religious concepts). With the elements reversed, it becomes Theodora. The accessory called a Dorothy bag is so called from 1907.
late 14c., "pertaining to or under the influence of the planet Mercury," from Latin Mercurialis, from Mercurius (see Mercury). Meaning "pertaining to the god Mercury, having the form or qualities attributed to Mercury" (in reference to his role as god of trade or as herald and guide) is from 1590s. Meaning "light-hearted, sprightly, volatile, changeable, quick" (1640s) is from the qualities supposed to characterize those born under the planet Mercury (they also are the qualities of the god Mercury), probably also partly by association with the qualities of quicksilver. A variant in this sense was mercurious (1590s). Related: Mercurially; mercuriality.