Etymology
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maenad (n.)

"Bacchante, female attendant or priestess of Bacchus," whose festivals were celebrated with mad dancing and singing, 1570s, from Greek mainas (genitive mainados) "priestess of Bacchus," literally "madwoman," from stem of mainesthai "to rage, go mad," from PIE *mnyo-, suffixed form of root *men- (1) "to think." Related: Maenadic.

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maestro (n.)

"master of music, great teacher or composer," 1797, from Italian maestro, literally "master," from Latin magistrum, accusative of magister "chief, head, director, teacher," contrastive adjective ("he who is greater") from magis (adv.) "more," from PIE *mag-yos-, comparative of root *meg- "great." Applied in Italian to eminent musical composers. Meaning "conductor, musical director" is short for maestro di cappella (1724), literally "master of the chapel" (compare German kapellmeister).

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maffick (v.)

"to celebrate boisterously," 1900, from Mafficking, a nonce-verb formed punningly from Mafeking, British garrison town in South Africa whose relief on May 17, 1900, during the Boer War, was celebrated wildly in London. OED reports the word "confined to journalistic use." By now it might as well write, "confined to dictionaries." The place name (properly Mafikeng) is from Tswana and is said to mean "place of rocks," from mafika, plural of lefika "rock, cliff" + -eng "place of."

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mafia (n.)

1875, from Italian Mafia "Sicilian secret society of criminals" (the prevailing sense outside Sicily), earlier, "spirit of hostility to the law and its ministers." A member is a mafioso (1870), fem. mafiosa, plural mafiosi, and this may be the older word in this sense. Arabic is often cited as the ultimate source (the Arabs ruled Sicily for more than two centuries in the Middle Ages), but which Arabic word is a matter of disagreement.

The most likely origin of the actual meaning of mafioso and its derivative mafia — as suggested by the nineteenth-century Sicilian ethnographer Giuseppe Pitrè — is a play by Placido Rizzoto, I Mafiusi della Vicaria, first performed in 1863. ... The play concerns a group of prisoners in the Palermo jail who command particular respect: although individualistic and quarrelsome, they are members of an association with distinct patterns of behavior (including an initiation ritual) and a hierarchy, which claims it can influence the political and administrative system of the island. [Diego Gambetta, "The Sicilian Mafia," Harvard, 1993]

The immediate source of mafioso, then, would be 19c. Sicilian mafiusu, "signifying a bully, arrogant but also fearless, enterprising, and proud" [Gambetta], who favors as the Arabic source an adjective from marfud "rejected."

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mag (adj.)

1969 in reference to car wheels, "made of magnesium alloy." As an abbreviation of magazine, it dates from 1801.

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*mag- 

also *mak-, Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to knead, fashion, fit." It forms all or part of: amass; among; macerate; magma; make; mason; mass (n.1) "lump, quantity, size;" match (n.2) "one of a pair, an equal;" mingle; mongrel.

It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Greek magis "kneaded mass, cake," mageus "one who kneads, baker;" Latin macerare "soften, make soft, soak, steep;" Lithuanian minkyti "to knead;" Old Church Slavonic mazo "to anoint, smear;" Breton meza "to knead;" Old English macian "to make, form, construct, do," German machen "to make;" Middle Irish maistir "to churn."

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Mag 

common pet form of the fem. proper name Margaret, attested since Middle English. Compare magpie. Mag's tales "far-fetched stories, nonsense" is from early 15c.

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magazine (n.)

1580s, "warehouse, place for storing goods, especially military ammunition," from French magasin "warehouse, depot, store" (15c.), from Italian magazzino, from Arabic makhazin, plural of makhzan "storehouse" (source of Spanish almacén "warehouse, magazine"), from khazana "to store up." The original sense is almost obsolete. Meaning "cartridge chamber in a repeating rifle" is by 1868; that of "a case in which a supply of cartridges is carried" is by 1892. 

The meaning "periodical journal containing miscellaneous writings" dates from the publication of the first one, Gentleman's Magazine, in 1731, which was so called from earlier use of the word for printed lists of military stores and information, or in a figurative sense, from the publication being a "storehouse" of information (originally of books, 1630s).

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magdalen (n.)

"reformed prostitute," 1690s, in reference to "Mary called Magdalene out of whom went seven devils," disciple of Christ (Luke viii.2), who often is identified (especially since 5c. and especially in the Western Church) with the unnamed penitent "woman in the city, which was a sinner" in Luke vii.37-50. See Magdalene.

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Magdalene 

fem. proper name, from Latin (Maria) Magdalena, "Mary of Magdala," the companion and supporter of Jesus, from Greek Magdalene, literally "woman of Magdala," from Aramaic (Semitic) Maghdela, place on the Sea of Galilee, literally "tower" (compare Hebrew migdal "tower," from gadal "be great or high"). The vernacular form of the name, via French, has come to English as maudlin.

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