1827, "a ruler in the name of God," from Greek theos "god" (from PIE root *dhes-, forming words for religious concepts) + -crat, from aristocrat, etc. From 1843 as "one who favors a system of theocracy." Theocratist was the name of a publication begun in 1828 "to maintain the essential relation which subsists between religion and politics," and might be used in the sense "one who emphasizes divine authority over reason and individual freedom and who explains social order as a revelation from God."
late 14c., divinen, "learn or make out by or as if by divination, foretell" future events (trans.), also intransitive, "use or practice divination;" from Old French deviner, from Vulgar Latin *devinare, a dissimilation of Latin divinare "foresee, foretell, predict," from divinus "of a god," from divus "of or belonging to a god, inspired, prophetic," which is related to deus "god, deity" (from PIE root *dyeu- "to shine," in derivatives "sky, heaven, god").
Latin divinus also meant, as a noun, "soothsayer." English divine (v.) is also attested from late 14c. in the sense of "make out by observations or otherwise; make a guess or conjecture" without reference to supernatural insight. The earliest English sense is "to contrive, plot" (mid-14c.). Related: Divined; divining. Divining rod (or wand) is attested from 1650s.
also T.G.I.F., by 1946, slang abbreviation of "Thank God (or "goodness"), it's Friday" (end of the work week).
element in many Arabic names, from Arabic (Semitic) abd "slave, servant," as in Abdallah "servant of God."
1871, of West African origin (compare Kikongo zumbi "fetish;" Kimbundu nzambi "god"), originally the name of a snake god, later with meaning "reanimated corpse" in voodoo cult. But perhaps also from Louisiana creole word meaning "phantom, ghost," from Spanish sombra "shade, ghost." Sense "slow-witted person" is recorded from 1936.
"vindication of divine justice," 1771, from French théodicée, title of a 1710 work by Leibniz to prove the justice of God in a world with much moral and physical evil, from Greek theos "god" (from PIE root *dhes-, forming words for religious concepts) + dike "custom, usage; justice, right; court case" (see Eurydice). Related: Theodicean.
"the doctrine that there is no God;" "disbelief in any regularity in the universe to which man must conform himself under penalties" [J.R. Seeley, "Natural Religion," 1882], 1580s, from French athéisme (16c.), with -ism + Greek atheos "without a god, denying the gods," from a- "without" (see a- (3)) + theos "a god" (from PIE root *dhes-, forming words for religious concepts). A slightly earlier form is represented by atheonism (1530s) which is perhaps from Italian atheo "atheist." Also compare atheous. The ancient Greek noun was atheotēs "ungodliness."
In late 19c. it was sometimes further distinguished into secondary senses: "The denial of theism, that is, of the doctrine that the great first cause is a supreme, intelligent, righteous person" [Century Dictionary, 1897] and "practical indifference to and disregard of God, godlessness."
In the first sense above given, atheism is to be discriminated from pantheism, which denies the personality of God, and from agnosticism, which denies the possibility of positive knowledge concerning him. In the second sense, atheism includes both pantheism and agnosticism. [Century Dictionary]
"belief in the existence of a personal God, generally accompanied by denial of revelation and the authority of a church," 1680s (deist is from 1620s), from French déisme, from Latin deus "god," from PIE root *dyeu- "to shine," in derivatives "sky, heaven, god."
A type of rationalistic theology that rose to prominence in England in the late 17c. and early 18c.; the deists advocated for the sufficiency of natural religion, apart from Scripture or revelation. Until c. 1700, the word was opposed to atheism; later it was the opposite of theism (q.v.), with which it is etymologically equivalent.
The term "deism" not only is used to signify the main body of the deists' teaching, or the tendency they represent, but has come into use as a technical term for one specific metaphysical doctrine as to the relation of God to the universe, assumed to have been characteristic of the deists, and to have distinguished them from atheists, pantheists and theists,—the belief, namely, that the first cause of the universe is a personal God, who is, however, not only distinct from the world but apart from it and its concerns. [Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1922]
1815, minced form of the exclamation God rot (something or someone). Compare dog-gone. Related: Dratted.