Etymology
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shimmy (v.)

"do a suggestive dance," 1918, perhaps via phrase shake the shimmy, which is possibly from shimmy (n.), a U.S. dialectal form of chemise (mistaken as a plural; compare shammy) which is attested by 1837. Or perhaps the verb is related to shimmer (v.) via a notion of glistening light. The transferred sense of "vibration of a motor vehicle" is by 1925. Related: Shimmied; shimmying. As a noun, the name of a popular, fast, suggestive pre-flapper dance, by 1919.

The first "shimmy" dance to appear, almost simultaneously with the signing of the armistice, was greeted with a howl of derision. "Vulgar"! cried the sensitive; "Absurd"! was the verdict of the scornful; "Difficult, but darned attractive!" modern art expressed it. Then, the "shimmy" in its rightful form was presented by Gilda Grey in the Shubert extravaganza "The Gaieties of 1919". Result: a lawsuit with a rival theatrical producer, and the awakened interest of everybody in the much-discussed and condemned dance. ["Good Morning Judge! 'Shake Your Shimmy,'" in The Greenville (S.C.) News, Aug. 27, 1919]
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catfish (v.)

"assume a fake persona on social media for the purpose of deceiving or attracting another person," by 2013, from the successful 2010 film "Catfish," concerning such an experience, and especially the subsequent TV show of the same name which aired from 2012 on MTV.

The film takes its title from an anecdote of fishermen putting a catfish in the tank with a shipment of live cod to keep the cod active in transit and tastier at the table. The anecdote, though attractive to sermonizers, seems to have no basis in reality. It is sometimes is traced to a 1988 sermon by evangelical pastor Charles R. Swindoll, but it has been used in sermons since the 1920s and the anecdote seems to have appeared first in print in two popular publications of 1913: Henry W. Nevinson's "The Catfish," in "Essays in Rebellion," and Charles Marriott's novel "The Catfish," in which it is a symbol for a woman who keeps a man active.

The article went on to speak of the world's catfish—anything or anybody that introduced into life the 'queer, unpleasant, disturbing touch of the kingdom of Heaven.' 'Well,' thought George, amusedly, 'Mary was his Catfish. She kept his soul alive. ...' " ["The Catfish"]

Publisher's Weekly (June 7, 1913) write in its review of the novel that "The story deals with the influence which one woman may exert over one man when man and woman meet in their quickest sympathy of mind and heart and instinct." Related: Catfishing; catfished.

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frame (n.)

c. 1200, "profit, benefit, advancement;" mid-13c. "a structure composed according to a plan," from frame (v.) and in part from Scandinavian cognates (Old Norse frami "advancement"). In late 14c. it also meant "the rack."

Meaning "sustaining parts of a structure fitted together" is from c. 1400. Meaning "enclosing border" of any kind is from c. 1600; specifically "border or case for a picture or pane of glass" from 1660s. The meaning "human body" is from 1590s. Of bicycles, from 1871; of motor cars, from 1900. Meaning "separate picture in a series from a film" is from 1916. From 1660s in the meaning "particular state" (as in Frame of mind, 1711). Frame of reference is 1897, from mechanics and graphing; the figurative sense is attested from 1924.

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rice (n.)

mid-13c., ris, "edible seeds or grains of the rice plant, one of the world's major food grains," from Old French ris, from Italian riso, from Latin oriza, from Greek oryza "rice," via an Indo-Iranian language (compare Pashto vriže, Old Persian brizi), ultimately from Sanskrit vrihi-s "rice."

The Greek word, directly or in indirectly, is the source of the European words for the grain (Welsh reis, German reis, Lithuanian ryžiai, Serbo-Croatian riza, Polish ryż, etc.). Evidence of semi-cultivated rice in Thailand dates to 5,500 years ago; introduced to the Mediterranean by the Arabs, it was introduced 1647 in the Carolinas.

Rice paper (1810), originally used in China, Japan, etc., is made from straw of rice; the name is sometimes misapplied to a delicate white film prepared from the pith of a certain East Asian shrub. Rice-pudding is by 1889. Rice Krispies is from 1936.

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scum (n.)

early 14c., "froth, foam, thin layer atop liquid" (implied in scomour "scummer, shallow ladle for removing scum"), from Middle Dutch schume "foam, froth," from Proto-Germanic *skuma- (source also of Old Norse skum, Old High German scum, German Schaum "foam, froth"), which is perhaps from PIE root *(s)keu- "to cover, conceal" on the notion of "that which covers the water."

Especially (late 14c.) "impure foam or extraneous substance that rises to the surface when liquid boils." Hence any sort of impure froth, and the sense deteriorated to "film of dirt," then simply "dirt, filth." The meaning "lowest class of humanity" is from 1580s; scum of the Earth is attested by 1712. The Germanic word was adopted in Romanic (Old French escume, Modern French écume, Spanish escuma, Italian schiuma). As a verb, "remove the scum from," late 14c.

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shrink (v.)

Middle English shrinken, from Old English scrincan "to draw in the limbs, contract spontaneously, shrivel up; wither (through death, age, disease, etc.), pine away" (class III strong verb; past tense scranc, past participle scruncen), from Proto-Germanic *skrink- (source also of Middle Dutch schrinken, Swedish skrynka "to wrinkle"), probably from PIE root *sker- (2) "to turn, bend."

Originally it had a causal form, shrench (compare drink/drench). The sense of "become reduced in size" is recorded from late 13c. The meaning "draw back, recoil" (early 14c.) often was in reference to the behavior of snails; the meaning "flinch, wince, draw back from fear or shame" is by mid-14c. The transitive sense of "cause to shrink, make to appear smaller" is from late 14c.

Shrink-wrap "clingy thin plastic film" used in food packaging is attested from 1961 (shrinking-wrap is by 1959). Shrinking violet "shy person" is attested by 1882.

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vamp (n.2)

"seductive woman who exploits men," 1911, short for vampire. First attested use is earlier than the release of the Fox film "A Fool There Was" (January 1915), with sultry Theda Bara in the role of The Vampire. The movie was based on a play of that name that had been on Broadway in 1909 (title and concept from a Kipling poem, "The Vampire," inspired by a Burne-Jones painting). The stage lead seems to have been played by Kathryn Kaelred and Bernice Golden Henderson. At any rate, Bara (born Theodosia Goodman) remains the classic vamp and the word's wide currency is attributable to her performance.

A fool there was and he made his prayer
(Even as you and I!)
To a rag and a bone and a hank of hair
(We called her the woman who did not care)
But the fool, he called her his lady fair
(Even as you and I.)
[Kipling, from "The Vampire"]
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keystone (n.)

"stone in the middle of an arch (typically the uppermost stone), which holds up the others," 1630s, earlier simply key (1520s), from key (n.1) in figurative sense of "that which holds together other parts," or from its Middle English architectural sense "projecting ornament of at the intersections of ribs of vaulted or flat ceilings" (mid-14c.). Being the last put in, it is regarded as "keying," or locking together, the whole structure.

Figurative sense "chief element of a system" is from 1640s. Pennsylvania was called the Keystone State because of its position (geographical and political) in the original American confederation, occupying the middle (7th) place in the "arch" of states along the Atlantic, between eastern states and southern ones. Keystone cops were the bumbling police in the slapstick silent movies produced by Keystone Studios, formed in 1912 in Edendale, Calif., by Canadian-born U.S. film director Mack Sennett (1884-1960).

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jungle (n.)

1776, "dense growth of trees and other tangled vegetation," such as that of some regions  in India, from Hindi jangal "desert, forest, wasteland, uncultivated ground," from Sanskrit jangala-s "arid, sparsely grown with trees," a word of unknown origin.

Extended by 1849 to other places overgrown by vegetation in a wild, tangled mass. Figurative sense "wild, tangled mass" of anything is from 1850. Meaning "place notoriously lawless and violent" is first recorded 1906, from Upton Sinclair's novel. Meaning "hobo camp" is from 1908.

Asphalt jungle (1949) is from William R. Burnett's novel title, made into a film 1950 by John Huston; blackboard jungle (1954) is from Evan Hunter's novel title and 1955 movie. Jungle fever "remittent malignant fever prevalent in India and tropical regions" is from 1803. Jungle gym appears in advertisements from 1921, originally one word, made by Junglegym Inc., Chicago, U.S. Jungle bunny, derogatory for "black person," is attested by 1966.

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ambrotype (n.)

type of photograph on glass with lights given by silver and shades by a dark background showing through, 1855, American English, apparently from Greek ambrotos "immortal, imperishable" (see ambrosia), with second element from daguerreotype.

This invention consists in an improved process of taking photographic pictures upon glass, and also of beautifying and preserving the same, which process I have styled "ambrotype." My improved process has reference to the art of taking pictures photographically on a film of collodion upon the surface of a sheet of glass, the collodion being suitably prepared for the purpose. By the use of the said process, the beauty and permanency of such pictures are greatly increased, and I have on this account styled the process "ambrotype," from the Greek word ambrotos, immortal. ["Specification of the Patent granted to James A. Cutting, of Boston, in the United States of America, Photographer, for an Improved Process of taking Photographic Pictures upon Glass and also of Beautifying and Preserving the same. Dated London, July 26, 1854," printed in Journal of the Franklin Institute, September 1855]
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