Etymology
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retrieve (v.)

early 15c., retreven, "find or discover again," originally in reference to dogs finding lost game, from retruev-, stem of Old French retreuver (Modern French retrouver) "find again, recover, meet again, recognize," from re- "again" (see re-) + trouver "to find," probably from Vulgar Latin *tropare "to compose," from Greek tropos "a turn, way, manner" (from PIE root *trep- "to turn").

Altered 16c. to retrive; modern form is from mid-17c. Specifically, of a dog, "to find and bring to hand game wounded or killed by a sportsman" is by 1856. The mental sense of "recall, recover by effort of memory" is from 1640s; computer sense of "obtain (stored information) again" is by 1962.

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remember (v.)

mid-14c., remembren, "keep or bear (something or someone) in mind, retain in the memory, preserve unforgotten," from Old French remembrer "remember, recall, bring to mind" (11c.), from Latin rememorari "recall to mind, remember," from re- "again" (see re-) + memorari "be mindful of," from memor "mindful" (from PIE root *(s)mer- (1) "to remember").

The meaning "recall to mind, bring again to the memory" is from late 14c.; the sense of "to mention" is from 1550s. Also in Middle English "to remind" (someone), "bring back the memory of" (something to someone); "give an account, narrate," and in passive constructions such as hit remembreth me "I remember." An Anglo-Saxon verb for it was gemunan.

The insertion of -b- between -m- and a following consonant (especially where a vowel has dropped out) is regular: compare number (n.), chamber (n.), humble (adj.).

Remember implies that a thing exists in the memory, not that it is actually present in the thoughts at the moment, but that it recurs without effort. Recollect means that a fact, forgotten or partially lost to memory, is after some effort recalled and present to the mind. Remembrance is the store-house, recollection the act of culling out this article and that from the repository. He remembers everything he hears, and can recollect any statement when called on. The words, however, are often confounded, and we say we cannot remember a thing when we mean we cannot recollect it. [Century Dictionary, 1895]

In complimentary messages, "remember (one) to (another), recall one to the remembrance of another," as in remember me to your family, is attested from 1550s.

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conqueror (n.)

"one who wins a country, subjugates a people, or defeats an adversary," c. 1300, from Anglo-French conquerour, Old French conquereor, from Old French conquerre "conquer, defeat, vanquish," from Vulgar Latin *conquaerere (for Latin conquirere) "to search for, procure by effort, win," from assimilated form of Latin com-, here perhaps an intensive prefix (see com-), + quaerere "to seek, gain" (see query (v.)).

Another early form was conquestor, from the Latin agent noun, conquistor, conquaestor. Fem. form conqueress is attested from c. 1400. William Duke of Normandy was called William the Conqueror from early 12c. in Anglo-Latin (Guillelmus Magus id est conqustor rex Anglorum), by late 14c. in English.

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hush (v.)

1540s (trans.), 1560s (intrans.), variant of Middle English huisht (late 14c.), probably of imitative origin, with terminal -t lost probably by being mistaken for a past tense suffix. The sounds chosen presumably for "being sibilations requiring the least muscular effort and admitting of the faintest utterance" [Century Dictionary]. Related: Hushed; hushing.

Figurative use from 1630s. As an interjection meaning "be quiet," attested by c. 1600. To hush (one's) mouth "be quiet" is attested from 1878. Hush up "suppress talk for secrecy's sake" is from 1630s. Hush-money "bribe paid to ensure silence" is attested from 1709. Hush-puppy "deep-fried ball of cornmeal batter" first attested 1899; as a type of lightweight soft shoe, it is a proprietary name, registered 1961.

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adjust (v.)
Origin and meaning of adjust

late 14c., ajusten, "to correct, remedy," from Old French ajuster, ajoster "add; assemble; calibrate, gauge, regulate," from Late Latin adiuxtare "to bring near," from ad "to" (see ad-) + Latin iuxta "next, close by," from suffixed form of PIE root *yeug- "to join."

In 16c. French corrected to adjuster, but the pedantic effort was rejected and Modern French has ajouter. Influenced in form and sense by folk-etymology, as if from ad- + iustus "just, equitable, fair." English reborrowed the word by c. 1600 in sense "arrange, settle, compose," from French adjuster "fit (things together) properly, put things in order." Meaning "to arrange (something) so as to conform with (a standard or another thing)" is from 1660s. Insurance sense is from 1755 (see adjuster). To adjust to "get used to" is attested by 1924. Related: Adjusted; adjusting.

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hack (v.1)

"to cut roughly, cut with chopping blows," c. 1200, from verb found in stem of Old English tohaccian "hack to pieces," from West Germanic *hakkon (source also of Old Frisian hackia "to chop or hack," Dutch hakken, Old High German hacchon, German hacken), from PIE root *keg- "hook, tooth." Perhaps influenced by Old Norse höggva "to hew, cut, strike, smite" (which is unrelated, from PIE *kau- "to hew, strike;" see hew).

The slang sense of "cope with" (as in can't hack it) is recorded in American English by 1955, with a notion of "get through by some effort," as a jungle (phrase hack after "keep working away at" is attested from late 14c.). To hack around "waste time" is U.S. slang, by 1955, perhaps originally of golfers or cabbies. Related: Hacked; hacking.

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bootstrap (n.)
also boot-strap, tab or loop at the back of the top of a men's boot, which the wearer hooked a finger through to pull the boots on, 1870, from boot (n.1) + strap (n.).

Circa 1900, to pull (oneself) up by (one's) bootstraps was used figuratively of an impossible task (among the "practical questions" at the end of chapter one of Steele's "Popular Physics" schoolbook (1888) is, "30. Why can not a man lift himself by pulling up on his boot-straps?" and an excellent question it is). By 1916 the meaning of the phrase had expanded to include "better oneself by rigorous, unaided effort." The meaning "fixed sequence of instructions to load the operating system of a computer" (1953) is from the notion of the first-loaded program pulling itself (and the rest) up by the bootstrap. It was used earlier of electrical circuits (1946).
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planchet (n.)

"metal disk out of which a coin is made," 1610s, from French planchette, literally "a small board," a diminutive of Old French planche (12c.; the source of plank), from Late Latin planca "board, slab, plank," which is probably from Latin plancus "flat, flat-footed," from a nasalized variant of the PIE root *plak- (1) "to be flat."

The small, heart-shaped planchette on its three legs, used in automatism and on Ouija boards, is a re-borrowing of the French word, by 1860.

If the tips of the fingers of one person, or of two, are placed lightly upon it, the board will often, after a time, move without conscious effort on the part of the operator, and the pencil-point will, it is said, trace lines, words, and even sentences. It was invented about 1855, and was for a time an object of not a little superstition. [Century Dictionary]
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vest (n.)

1610s, "loose outer garment" (worn by men in Eastern countries or in ancient times), from French veste "a vest, jacket" (17c.), from Italian vesta, veste "robe, gown," from Latin vestis "clothing," from vestire "to clothe" (from PIE *wes- (2) "to clothe," extended form of root *eu- "to dress"). The sleeveless garment worn by men beneath the coat was introduced by Charles II in a bid to rein in men's attire at court, which had grown extravagant and decadent in the French mode.

The King hath yesterday, in Council, declared his resolution of setting a fashion for clothes .... It will be a vest, I know not well how; but it is to teach the nobility thrift. [Pepys, diary, Oct. 8, 1666]

Louis XIV of France is said to have mocked the effort by putting his footmen in such vests.

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opera (n.)

"a drama sung" [Klein], "a form of extended dramatic composition in which music is essential and predominant," 1640s, from Italian opera, literally "a work, labor, composition," from Latin opera "work, effort" (Latin plural regarded as feminine singular), secondary (abstract) noun from operari "to work," from opus (genitive operis) "a work" (from PIE root *op- "to work, produce in abundance"). Explained in "Elson's Music Dictionary" as, "a form of musical composition evolved shortly before 1600, by some enthusiastic Florentine amateurs who sought to bring back the Greek plays to the modern stage."

No good opera plot can be sensible. ... People do not sing when they are feeling sensible. [W.H. Auden, 1961]

As a branch of dramatic art, it is attested from 1759. First record of opera glass "small binoculars to aid vision at the theater" is from 1738. Opera-house, "theater devoted chiefly to opera performances," is from 1720.

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