1640s, "springing back, returning to the original position," from Latin resilientem "inclined to leap or spring back," present participle of resilire "to jump back" (see resilience). Of material things, "resuming original shape after compression, etc.," by 1670s. Figuratively, of persons "bouncing back" from difficulties, etc., from 1830. Related: Resiliently.
in anatomy, "of or pertaining to the back," late 14c., from Old French dorsal (14c.) or directly from Medieval Latin dorsalis, corresponding to Latin dorsualis "of the back," from dorsum "back," which is of uncertain origin. Related: Dorsally.
"of, on, or in the back of the head," 1540s, from French occipital, from Medieval Latin occipitalis, from Latin occiput (genitive occipitis) "back of the skull," from assimilated form of ob "in the way of, against," here with a sense of "in back of" (see ob-) + caput "head" (from PIE root *kaput- "head"). As a noun, "the occipital bone," from 1758. Middle English had occiput (n.) "back of the head" and occipiciale (n.) "occipital bone."
"relapsed criminal," 1863, from French legal term récidiviste (by 1847), from récidiver "to fall back, relapse," from Medieval Latin recidivare "to relapse into sin," from Latin recidivus "falling back," from recidere "fall back," from re- "back, again" (see re-) + combining form of cadere "to fall" (from PIE root *kad- "to fall"). As an adjective by 1883.
"bundle of documents referring to some matter," 1880 (by 1868 as a French word in English), from French dossier "bundle of papers," from dos "back" (12c.), from Vulgar Latin *dossum, variant of Latin dorsum "back" (see dorsal). Supposedly so called because the bundle bore a label on the back, or possibly from resemblance of the bulge in a mass of bundled papers to the curve of a back. Old French dossiere meant "back-strap, ridge strap (of a horse's harness)."
1845, from back slum "dirty back alley of a city, street of poor or low people" (1825), originally a slang or cant word meaning "room," especially "back room" (1812), of unknown origin. Related: slums. Slumscape is from 1947.