late 14c., promoten, "to advance (someone) to a higher grade or office, exalt or raise to a higher post or position," from Old French promoter and directly from Latin promotus, past participle of promovere "move forward, advance; cause to advance, push onward; bring to light, reveal," from pro "forward" (see pro-) + movere "to move" (from PIE root *meue- "to push away").
General sense of "to further the growth or progress of (anything)" is from early 15c. In late Middle English and early Modern English also promove, from the Latin verb. Related: Promoted; promoting.
1690s, "an act of driving, the action of driving," from drive (v.). Sense of "course upon which carriages are driven" is from 1816 (hence its use in road and street names). Meaning "an excursion by vehicle" is from 1785.
Golfing sense of "forcible blow" is from 1836; in cricket from 1827, later also in baseball. Meaning "organized effort to raise money" is by 1889, American English. Sense of "dynamism" is from 1908. As a motor engine transmission lever position, by 1963. The computing sense "location capable of storing and reading a disk, etc." is by 1963.
c. 1200, demuren, "to linger, tarry, delay," a sense now obsolete, from variant stem of Old French demorer "delay, retard," from Latin demorari "to linger, loiter, tarry," from de- (see de-) + morari "to delay," from mora "a pause, delay" (see moratorium).
Modern sense of "raise objections, take exception, have scruples" is by 1630s, from a legal sense attested from the 1620s: "admit provisionally the facts of the opponent's proceeding but deny he is entitled to legal relief," a verb from demurrer. Such a pleading effectively stops the action until the point is settled. Related: Demurred; demurring.
by 1650s, of land, "till, prepare for crops;" by 1690s of crops, "raise or produce by tillage;" from Medieval Latin cultivatus, past participle of cultivare "to cultivate," from Late Latin cultivus "tilled," from Latin cultus "care, labor; cultivation," from past participle of colere "to cultivate, to till; to inhabit; to frequent, practice, respect; tend, guard," from PIE root *kwel- (1) "revolve, move round; sojourn, dwell."
Figurative sense of "improve by labor or study, devote one's attention to" is from 1680s. Meaning "court the acquaintance of (someone)" is by 1707. Related: Cultivated; cultivating.
late 14c, in astrology, "position of a planet in the zodiac where it exerts its greatest influence," from Old French exaltacion "enhancement, elevation," and directly from Late Latin exaltationem (nominative exaltatio) "elevation, pride," noun of action from past-participle stem of exaltare "to raise, elevate" (see exalt).
From late 15c. as "act of raising high or state of being elevated" (in power, rank, dignity, etc.); also "elevation of feeling, state of mind involving rapturous emotions." The Exaltation of the Cross (late 14c.) is the feast commemorating the miraculous apparition seen by Constantine in 317.
Old English climban "raise oneself using hands and feet; rise gradually, ascend; make an ascent of" (past tense clamb, past participle clumben, clumbe), from West Germanic *klimban "go up by clinging" (source also of Dutch klimmen, Old High German klimban, German klimmen "to climb").
A strong verb in Old English, weak by 16c. Other Germanic languages long ago dropped the -b. Meaning "to mount as if by climbing" is from mid-14c. Figurative sense of "rise slowly by effort or as if by climbing" is from mid-13c. Related: Climbed; climbing.
"lower extremity of the face below the mouth," Old English cin, cinn "chin," a general Germanic word (compare Old Saxon and Old High German kinni; Old Norse kinn; German Kinn "chin;" Gothic kinnus "cheek"), from PIE root *genu- (2), probably originally "jaw, jawbone," but also forming words for "chin, cheek."
The West Germanic words generally mean "chin," but there are traces of earlier use as "jaw," such as Old English cinbane "jawbone," and the words for "cheek," "chin," and "jaw" naturally overlap and interchange; compare cheek (n.), which originally meant "jaw," and Latin maxilla, which gave Italian mascella "jaw," but Spanish mejilla "cheek."
To take it on the chin "be hit hard" in a figurative sense (sometimes suggesting "ability to withstand punishment"), is from 1924, an image from pugilism. To keep (one's) chin up "remain optimistic amid adversity" is from 1913, though the image itself is older.
I discovered the other day another simple means of producing cheerfulness—raise the chin—with the chin up, the whole mental attitude is changed. If you feel a bit blue or discouraged, just raise your chin, and you will find that things look different; whereas the mere appearance of a man with his chin down suggests that he is disconsolate. [National Magazine, November 1906]
late 14c., rescoue, "act of saving from danger, confinement, enemies, etc., from rescue (v.). The earlier noun or form of the noun in Middle English was rescous (early 14c.), from Old French rescous, verbal noun to rescourre, rescorre.
As an adjective by 1888 (William Booth) "aiming to raise fallen or degraded persons," originally and especially prostitutes but also the intemperate; hence rescue mission, for those in need of spiritual or moral rehabilitation. A rescue opera (by 1935, probably translating a continental phrase) was one in which the hero or heroine is rescued after great tribulations.