movement in painting associated with Henri Matisse, 1915, from French fauve, "wild beast," a term applied in contempt to these painters by French art critic Louis Vauxcelles at Autumn Salon of 1905. The movement was a reaction against impressionism, featuring vivid use of colors. French fauve (12c.) in Old French meant "fawn-colored horse, dark-colored thing, dull," and is from Frankish *falw- or some other Germanic source, cognate with German falb "dun, pale yellowish-brown" and English fallow "brownish-yellow," from PIE root *pel- (1) "pale." Related: Fauvism (1912).
1550s, "stroke of a whip," from jerk (v.1). Sense of "sudden sharp pull or twist" is by 1570s. Meaning "involuntary spasmodic movement of limbs or features" recorded from 1805. As the name of a popular dance, it is attested from 1966.
also pan-slavism, "ideal of a united civilization and literature of the Slavic peoples; movement for the union of the Slavic peoples under the hegemony of Russia," 1846, from German Pansclavismus, coined as a linguistic term by Herkel in 1826. Related: Panslavic.
word-forming element used in science for the carbon-nitrogen compound radical, from a Latinized form of Greek kyanos "dark blue" (see cyan).
The immediate source of its use in science is French cyanogène, the name given to the compound radical by Gay-Lussac. He called it that because it first had been obtained by heating the dye pigment powder known as Prussian blue (see Prussian).
The cyanogen radical was one of the first examples of a 'compound radical' and was of importance in the development of structural chemistry during the next forty years. [Flood, "Origins of Chemical Names"]
late 14c., "hinder, impede the movement of," originally by fastening a block of wood to something, from clog (n.). Meaning "choke up with extraneous matter" is 1670s; intransitive sense "become choked up with extraneous matter" is from 1755. Related: Clogged; clogging.
1670s, "piece of wood, block" (especially one used to prevent movement), possibly from Old North French choque "a block" (Old French çoche "log," 12c.; Modern French souche "stump, stock, block"), from Gaulish *tsukka "a tree trunk, stump."