"not excessive in amount, intensity, quality, etc.," late 14c., originally of weather and other physical conditions, from Latin moderatus "within bounds, observing moderation;" figuratively "modest, restrained," past participle of moderari "to regulate, mitigate, restrain, temper, set a measure, keep (something) within measure," from PIE *med-es-, from root *med- "take appropriate measures." The notion is "keeping within due measure." In English, of persons from early 15c., of opinions from 1640s, of prices from 1670s. Related: Moderateness.
1650s, "of the nature of a disease, indicative of a disease," from Latin morbidus "diseased," from morbus "sickness, disease, ailment, illness," according to de Vaan perhaps connected to the root of mori "to die," as "looking like death" (from PIE root *mer- "to rub away, harm," also "to die" and forming words referring to death and to beings subject to death), or from a non-IE word. Meaning "diseased, sickly" is from 1731. Transferred use, of mental states, "unwholesome, excessive, unreasonable" is by 1834. Related: Morbidly; morbidness. Middle English had morbous "diseased" (early 15c.), from Latin morbosus.
1550s, of persons, "mentally damaged," from Latin insanus "mad, insane, of unsound mind; outrageous, excessive, extravagant," from in- "not" (see in- (1)) + sanus "well, healthy, sane" (see sane). In reference to actions, "irrational, evidencing madness," from 1842 in English. The noun meaning "insane person" is attested from 1786. For the notion of insanity as sickness, compare lunatic; and Italian pazzo "insane," originally a euphemism, from Latin patiens "suffering." German verrückt, literally past participle of verrücken "to displace," "applied to the brain as to a clock that is 'out of order' " [Buck].
joint disease, c. 1200, from Old French gote "a drop, bead; the gout, rheumatism" (10c., Modern French goutte), from Latin gutta "a drop," in Medieval Latin "gout," a word of unknown origin. In old medicine the disease was thought to be caused by drops of viscous humors seeping from the blood into the joints, which turns out to be close to the modern scientific explanation. It often was caused by the drinking of heavy or sweet wines, or excessive beer drinking combined with insufficient food.
c. 1300, "coldness of an object to the touch, relative absence of heat," from cold (adj.). Meaning "sensation produced by loss of heat from the body or some part of it" is from c. 1200.
Sense of "indisposition involving catarrhal inflammation of the mucous membranes of the nose or throat" is from 1530s, so called because the symptoms resemble those of exposure to cold; compare cold (n.) in earlier senses "indisposition or disease caused by excessive exposure to cold" (early 14c.), "chills of intermittent fever" (late 14c.). To be left out in the cold in the figurative sense is from 1861.
also oedema, "excessive accumulation of serum in tissue spaces or a body cavity," c. 1400, idema, "a swelling filled with phlegmatic humors," from medical Latin, from Greek oidēma (genitive oidēmatos) "a swelling tumor," from oidein "to swell," from oidos "tumor, swelling," from PIE *oid- "to swell," source also of Latin aemidus "swelling;" Armenian aitumn "a swelling," aytnum "to swell;" Old Norse eista "testicle," Old High German eittar "pus," Old English attor "poison" (that which makes the body swell), and the first element in Oedipus.
early 15c., parcimony, "economy, thrift, frugality, sparingness in the use of expenditure of means," from Latin parsimonia "sparingness, frugality, thrift," from pars-, past-participle stem of parcere "to spare, save, refrain from, use moderately" (which is said to be unrelated to Latin parvus "small," parum "too little") + -monia, suffix signifying action, state, or condition. De Vaan suggests a PIE source-word meaning "to hold." Now commonly "excessive or unnecessary economy, stinginess," a narrowed sense attested by mid-16c.
"excessive or misleading publicity or advertising," 1967, American English (the verb is attested from 1937), probably in part a back-formation of hyperbole, but also from underworld slang verb hype "to swindle by overcharging or short-changing" (1926), itself a back-formation from hyper "short-change con man" (1914), from the prefix hyper- meaning "over, to excess."
Also possibly influenced by drug addicts' slang hype, shortening of hypodermic needle (1913). Related: Hyped; hyping. In early 18c., hyp "morbid depression of the spirits" was colloquial for hypochondria (usually as the hyp or the hyps).
"lustful man, man given to excessive sexual indulgence," late 12c., from Old French lecheor (Modern French lécheur) "one living a life of debauchery," especially "one given to sexual indulgence," literally "licker," agent noun from lechier "to lick;" also "to live in debauchery or gluttony," from Frankish *likkon or some other Germanic source, from Proto-Germanic *likkojan "to lick" (from PIE root *leigh- "to lick"). The Old French feminine form was lechiere. Middle English, meanwhile, had lickestre "female who licks;" figuratively "a pleasure seeker," literally "lickster," with -ster. In 18c. sometimes leacher (Bailey), along with leacherous, leachery.
late 14c., "to roast or dry" (peas, beans, corn, etc.), a word of uncertain origin. Klein and OED reject derivations from Old North French perchier (Old French percer) "to pierce" and Latin persiccare "to dry thoroughly." Century Dictionary, The Middle English Compendium, and Barnhart suggest it could be from Middle English perchen, a variant of perishen "to perish" (see perish). Klein "tentatively" suggests a back-formation from parchment. A surname Parchecorn is attested from mid-14c. Meaning "to dry with excessive heat, expose to the strong action of fire but without burning" is from mid-15c. Related: Parched; parching.