Etymology
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umber (n.)

brown earthy pigment, 1560s, from French ombre (in terre d'ombre), or Italian ombra (in terra di ombra), both from Latin umbra "shade, shadow" (see umbrage) or else from Umbra, fem. of Umber "belonging to Umbria," region in central Italy from which the coloring matter first came (compare Sienna). Burnt umber, specially prepared and redder in color, is attested from c. 1650, distinguished from raw umber.

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male (adj.)

late 14c., "pertaining to the sex that begets young," as distinguished from the female, which conceives and gives birth, from Old French male, masle "male, masculine; a male" (see male (n.)). Mechanical sense, used for the part of an instrument that penetrates another part, is from 1660s. Meaning "appropriate to men, masculine" is by 1788. Sense of "composed or consisting of men and boys" is by 1680s.

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ample (adj.)

mid-15c., "great, abundant," especially "sufficient for any purpose," from Old French ample "large, wide, vast, great" (12c.), from Latin amplus "large, spacious; abundant, numerous; magnificent, distinguished," which is related to ampla "handle, grip; opportunity," from Proto-Italic *amlo- "seizable," from a PIE root meaning "to grab" that also is postulated as the source of amare "to love" (see Amy).

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shit-head (n.)

also shithead, "objectionable or contemptible person," by 1961, from shit (n.) + head (n.). Piece of shit for "contemptible person" is by 1916; shit-sack or shitsack in this sense is noted by 1769, in reference to the time of Charles II, as an "opprobrious appellation by which the Nonconformists were vulgarly distinguished." Simple shit (n.) for "obnoxious person" is by 1510s.

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nova (n.)

"star that suddenly increases in brightness then slowly fades," 1877, from Latin nova, fem. singular adjective of novus "new" (see new), used with stella "star" (a feminine noun in Latin) to describe a new star not previously known (Tycho Brahe's published observation of the nova in Cassiopeia in 1572 was titled De nova stella). Not distinguished from supernovae until 1930s (Tycho's star was a supernova). The classical plural is novae.

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sublime (adj.)

1580s, "expressing lofty ideas in an elevated manner," from French sublime (15c.), or directly from Latin sublimis "uplifted, high, borne aloft, lofty, exalted, eminent, distinguished," possibly originally "sloping up to the lintel," from sub "up to" (see sub-) + limen "lintel, threshold, sill" (see limit (n.)). The sublime (n.) "the sublime part of anything, that which is stately or imposing" is from 1670s. For Sublime Porte, former title of the Ottoman government, see Porte.

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sativa 

in scientific plant name classifications from late 18c., indicating a cultivated form, is from Latin sativus "cultivated, that is sown or planted," from satus, past participle of serere "to sow, plant seed" (from PIE root *sē- 

"to sow"). Sative (adj.) formerly was used in English for "sown, as in a garden (1590s). E.g. Cannabis sativa, originally the plant cultivated in the West, distinguished from indica, a wild species growing in and around India. 

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hoot (v.)
"to call or shout in disapproval or scorn," c. 1600, probably related to or a variant of Middle English houten, huten "to shout, call out" (c. 1200), which is more or less imitative of the sound of the thing. First used of bird cries, especially that of the owl, mid-15c. Meaning "to laugh" is from 1926. Related: Hooted; hooting. A hoot owl (1826) is distinguished from a screech owl.
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Pietism (n.)

1690s, in reference to a specific religious movement, Pietism, from German Pietismus, originally applied in derision to the movement to revive personal piety in the Lutheran Church, begun in Frankfurt c. 1670 by Philipp Jakob Spener (1635-1705). See piety + -ism. With lower-case p- and in reference generally to devotion, godliness of life (as distinguished from mere intellectual orthodoxy), by 1829.

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cardigan (n.)
"close-fitting knitted woolen jacket or waistcoat," 1868, from James Thomas Brudenell (1797-1868), 7th Earl of Cardigan, English general distinguished in the Crimean War, who set the style, in one account supposedly wearing such a jacket while leading the Charge of the Light Brigade at Balaclava (1854). The place name is an Englishing of Welsh Ceredigion, literally "Ceredig's land." Ceredig lived in the 5th century.
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